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Verwenden der GitHub CLI auf einem Runner

Verwenden erweiterter GitHub Actions-Features für Continuous Integration (CI).

Hinweis: GitHub-gehostete Runner werden auf GitHub Enterprise Server derzeit nicht unterstützt. Weitere Informationen zur geplanten zukünftigen Unterstützung findest Du in der GitHub public roadmap.

Übersicht über das Beispiel

In diesem Artikel werden anhand eines Beispielworkflows einige der wichtigsten CI-Features von GitHub Actions vorgestellt. Wenn dieser Workflow ausgelöst wird, wird automatisch ein Skript ausgeführt, das überprüft, ob die GitHub-Docs-Website fehlerhafte Links aufweist. Wenn fehlerhafte Links gefunden werden, verwendet der Workflow die GitHub CLI, um ein GitHub-Issue mit den Details zu erstellen.

Das folgende Diagramm zeigt die allgemeinen Schritte im Workflow und wie sie im Auftrag ausgeführt werden:

Diagramm eines Ereignisses, das einen Workflow auslöst, der GitHub CLI verwendet, um ein Issue zu erstellen.

In diesem Beispiel verwendete Features

Der Beispielworkflow veranschaulicht die folgenden Möglichkeiten von GitHub Actions.

FeatureImplementierung
Ausführen eines Workflows in regelmäßigen Abständenschedule
Festlegen von Berechtigungen für das Tokenpermissions
Verhindern, dass ein Auftrag ausgeführt wird, sofern bestimmte Bedingungen nicht erfüllt sindif
Verweisen auf Geheimnisse in einem WorkflowGeheimnisse
Klonen deines Repositorys an den Runneractions/checkout
Installieren von node für den Runneractions/setup-node
Verwenden einer Drittanbieteraktionpeter-evans/create-issue-from-file
Ausführen eines Skripts auf dem RunnerVerwenden von script/check-english-links.js
Generieren einer AusgabedateiWeiterleiten der Ausgabe mit dem >-Operator
Überprüfen auf vorhandene Issues mit GitHub CLIgh issue list
Kommentieren eines Issues mithilfe von GitHub CLIgh issue comment

Beispielworkflow

Der folgende Workflow wurde von dem Docs Engineering-Team für GitHub erstellt. Um die neueste Version dieser Datei im Repository github/docs zu überprüfen, siehe check-all-english-links.yml.

Der folgende Workflow überprüft einmal am Tag alle englischen Links und meldet fehlerhafte Links, indem ein neues Issue zur Überprüfung durch das Team für Dokumentationsinhalte erstellt wird.

YAML
name: Check all English links

Hiermit wird der Name des Workflows definiert, der auf der Registerkarte „Aktionen“ im GitHub-Repository angezeigt wird.

on:
  workflow_dispatch:
  schedule:
    - cron: '40 19 * * *' # once a day at 19:40 UTC / 11:40 PST

Defines the workflow_dispatch and scheduled as triggers for the workflow.

The workflow_dispatch event lets you manually run this workflow from the UI. For more information, see workflow_dispatch.

The schedule event lets you use cron syntax to define a regular interval for automatically triggering the workflow. For more information, see schedule.

permissions:
  contents: read
  issues: write

Modifies the default permissions granted to GITHUB_TOKEN. This will vary depending on the needs of your workflow. For more information, see "Zuweisen von Berechtigungen zu Aufträgen."

jobs:

Groups together all the jobs that run in the workflow file.

  check_all_english_links:
    name: Check all links

Defines a job with the ID check_all_english_links, and the name Check all links, that is stored within the jobs key.

    if: github.repository == 'github/docs-internal'

Only run the check_all_english_links job if the repository is named docs-internal and is within the github organization. Otherwise, the job is marked as skipped.

    runs-on: ubuntu-latest

Configures the job to run on an Ubuntu Linux runner. This means that the job will execute on a fresh virtual machine hosted by GitHub. For syntax examples using other runners, see "Workflowsyntax für GitHub Actions."

    env:
      GITHUB_TOKEN: ${{ secrets.DOCUBOT_READORG_REPO_WORKFLOW_SCOPES }}
      FIRST_RESPONDER_PROJECT: Docs content first responder
      REPORT_AUTHOR: docubot
      REPORT_LABEL: broken link report
      REPORT_REPOSITORY: github/docs-content

Creates custom environment variables, and redefines the built-in GITHUB_TOKEN variable to use a custom secret. These variables will be referenced later in the workflow.

    steps:

Groups together all the steps that will run as part of the check_all_english_links job. Each job in the workflow has its own steps section.

      - name: Check out repo's default branch
        uses: actions/checkout@v4

The uses keyword tells the job to retrieve the action named actions/checkout. This is an action that checks out your repository and downloads it to the runner, allowing you to run actions against your code (such as testing tools). You must use the checkout action any time your workflow will run against the repository's code or you are using an action defined in the repository.

      - name: Setup Node
        uses: actions/setup-node@v4
        with:
          node-version: 16.13.x
          cache: npm

This step uses the actions/setup-node action to install the specified version of the node software package on the runner, which gives you access to the npm command.

      - name: Run the "npm ci" command
        run: npm ci
      - name: Run the "npm run build" command
        run: npm run build

The run keyword tells the job to execute a command on the runner. In this case, the npm ci and npm run build commands are run as separate steps to install and build the Node.js application in the repository.

      - name: Run script
        run: |
          script/check-english-links.js > broken_links.md

This run command executes a script that is stored in the repository at script/check-english-links.js, and pipes the output to a file called broken_links.md.

      - if: ${{ failure() }}
        name: Get title for issue
        id: check
        run: echo "title=$(head -1 broken_links.md)" >> $GITHUB_OUTPUT

If the check-english-links.js script detects broken links and returns a non-zero (failure) exit status, then use a workflow command to set an output that has the value of the first line of the broken_links.md file (this is used the next step).

check-english-links.js returns 0 if no links are broken, and 1 if any links are broken. When an Actions step's exit code is 1, the action run's job status is failure and the run ends.

The following steps create an issue for the broken link report only if any links are broken, so if: ${{ failure() }} ensures the steps run despite the previous step's failure of the job.

      - if: ${{ failure() }}
        name: Create issue from file
        id: broken-link-report
        uses: peter-evans/create-issue-from-file@ceef9be92406ace67ab5421f66570acf213ec395
        with:
          token: ${{ env.GITHUB_TOKEN }}
          title: ${{ steps.check.outputs.title }}
          content-filepath: ./broken_links.md
          repository: ${{ env.REPORT_REPOSITORY }}
          labels: ${{ env.REPORT_LABEL }}

Uses the peter-evans/create-issue-from-file action to create a new GitHub issue. This example is pinned to a specific version of the action, using the ceef9be92406ace67ab5421f66570acf213ec395 SHA.

      - if: ${{ failure() }}
        name: Close and/or comment on old issues
        env:
          NEW_REPORT_URL: 'https://github.com/${{ env.REPORT_REPOSITORY }}/issues/${{ steps.broken-link-report.outputs.issue-number }}'
        run: |
          gh alias set list-reports "issue list \
                                       --repo ${{ env.REPORT_REPOSITORY }} \
                                       --author ${{ env.REPORT_AUTHOR }} \
                                       --label '${{ env.REPORT_LABEL }}'"
          previous_report_url=$(gh list-reports \
                                  --state all \
                                  --limit 2 \
                                  --json url \
                                  --jq '.[].url' \
                                  | grep -v ${{ env.NEW_REPORT_URL }} | head -1)

Uses gh issue list to locate the previously created issue from earlier runs. This is aliased to gh list-reports for simpler processing in later steps.

          gh issue comment ${{ env.NEW_REPORT_URL }} --body "⬅️ [Previous report]($previous_report_url)"

gh issue comment is used to add a comment to the new issue that links to the previous one.

          for issue_url in $(gh list-reports \
                                  --json assignees,url \
                                  --jq '.[] | select (.assignees != []) | .url'); do
            if [ "$issue_url" != "${{ env.NEW_REPORT_URL }}" ]; then
              gh issue comment $issue_url --body "➡️ [Newer report](${{ env.NEW_REPORT_URL }})"
            fi
          done
          for issue_url in $(gh list-reports \
                                  --search 'no:assignee' \
                                  --json url \
                                  --jq '.[].url'); do
            if [ "$issue_url" != "${{ env.NEW_REPORT_URL }}" ]; then
              gh issue comment $issue_url --body "➡️ [Newer report](${{ env.NEW_REPORT_URL }})"

If an issue from a previous run is open and assigned to someone, then use gh issue comment to add a comment with a link to the new issue without closing the old report. To get the issue URL, the jq expression processes the resulting JSON output.

If an issue from a previous run is open and is not assigned to anyone, use gh issue comment to add a comment with a link to the new issue. Then use gh issue close and gh issue edit to close the issue and remove it from the project board.

              gh issue close $issue_url

Use gh issue close to close the old issue.

              gh issue edit $issue_url --remove-project "${{ env.FIRST_RESPONDER_PROJECT }}"
            fi
          done

Use gh issue edit to edit the old issue and remove it from a specific GitHub project board.

# Hiermit wird der Name des Workflows definiert, der auf der Registerkarte „Aktionen“ im GitHub-Repository angezeigt wird.
name: Check all English links

# Defines the `workflow_dispatch` and `scheduled` as triggers for the workflow.
#
# The `workflow_dispatch` event lets you manually run this workflow from the UI. For more information, see [`workflow_dispatch`](/actions/using-workflows/events-that-trigger-workflows#workflow_dispatch).
#
# The `schedule` event lets you use `cron` syntax to define a regular interval for automatically triggering the workflow. For more information, see [`schedule`](/actions/using-workflows/events-that-trigger-workflows#schedule).
on:
  workflow_dispatch:
  schedule:
    - cron: '40 19 * * *' # once a day at 19:40 UTC / 11:40 PST

# Modifies the default permissions granted to `GITHUB_TOKEN`. This will vary depending on the needs of your workflow. For more information, see "[AUTOTITLE](/actions/using-jobs/assigning-permissions-to-jobs)."
permissions:
  contents: read
  issues: write

# Groups together all the jobs that run in the workflow file.
jobs:
  # Defines a job with the ID `check_all_english_links`, and the name `Check all links`, that is stored within the `jobs` key.
  check_all_english_links:
    name: Check all links
    # Only run the `check_all_english_links` job if the repository is named `docs-internal` and is within the `github` organization. Otherwise, the job is marked as _skipped_.
    if: github.repository == 'github/docs-internal'
    # Configures the job to run on an Ubuntu Linux runner. This means that the job will execute on a fresh virtual machine hosted by GitHub. For syntax examples using other runners, see "[AUTOTITLE](/actions/using-workflows/workflow-syntax-for-github-actions#jobsjob_idruns-on)."
    runs-on: ubuntu-latest
    # Creates custom environment variables, and redefines the built-in `GITHUB_TOKEN` variable to use a custom [secret](/actions/security-guides/using-secrets-in-github-actions). These variables will be referenced later in the workflow.
    env:
      GITHUB_TOKEN: ${{ secrets.DOCUBOT_READORG_REPO_WORKFLOW_SCOPES }}
      FIRST_RESPONDER_PROJECT: Docs content first responder
      REPORT_AUTHOR: docubot
      REPORT_LABEL: broken link report
      REPORT_REPOSITORY: github/docs-content
    # Groups together all the steps that will run as part of the `check_all_english_links` job. Each job in the workflow has its own `steps` section.
    steps:
      # The `uses` keyword tells the job to retrieve the action named `actions/checkout`. This is an action that checks out your repository and downloads it to the runner, allowing you to run actions against your code (such as testing tools). You must use the checkout action any time your workflow will run against the repository's code or you are using an action defined in the repository.
      - name: Check out repo's default branch
        uses: actions/checkout@v4
      # This step uses the `actions/setup-node` action to install the specified version of the `node` software package on the runner, which gives you access to the `npm` command.
      - name: Setup Node
        uses: actions/setup-node@v4
        with:
          node-version: 16.13.x
          cache: npm
      # The `run` keyword tells the job to execute a command on the runner. In this case, the `npm ci` and `npm run build` commands are run as separate steps to install and build the Node.js application in the repository.
      - name: Run the "npm ci" command
        run: npm ci
      - name: Run the "npm run build" command
        run: npm run build
      # This `run` command executes a script that is stored in the repository at `script/check-english-links.js`, and pipes the output to a file called `broken_links.md`.
      - name: Run script
        run: |
          script/check-english-links.js > broken_links.md

      # If the `check-english-links.js` script detects broken links and returns a non-zero (failure) exit status, then use a [workflow command](/actions/using-workflows/workflow-commands-for-github-actions#setting-an-output-parameter) to set an output that has the value of the first line of the `broken_links.md` file (this is used the next step).
      #
      # `check-english-links.js` returns 0 if no links are broken, and 1 if any links are broken. When an Actions step's exit code is 1, the action run's job status is failure and the run ends.
      #
      # The following steps create an issue for the broken link report only if any links are broken, so `if: ${{ failure() }}` ensures the steps run despite the previous step's failure of the job.
      - if: ${{ failure() }}
        name: Get title for issue
        id: check
        run: echo "title=$(head -1 broken_links.md)" >> $GITHUB_OUTPUT
      # Uses the `peter-evans/create-issue-from-file` action to create a new GitHub issue. This example is pinned to a specific version of the action, using the `ceef9be92406ace67ab5421f66570acf213ec395` SHA.
      - if: ${{ failure() }}
        name: Create issue from file
        id: broken-link-report
        uses: peter-evans/create-issue-from-file@ceef9be92406ace67ab5421f66570acf213ec395
        with:
          token: ${{ env.GITHUB_TOKEN }}

          title: ${{ steps.check.outputs.title }}
          content-filepath: ./broken_links.md
          repository: ${{ env.REPORT_REPOSITORY }}
          labels: ${{ env.REPORT_LABEL }}
      # Uses [`gh issue list`](https://cli.github.com/manual/gh_issue_list) to locate the previously created issue from earlier runs. This is [aliased](https://cli.github.com/manual/gh_alias_set) to `gh list-reports` for simpler processing in later steps.
      - if: ${{ failure() }}
        name: Close and/or comment on old issues
        env:
          NEW_REPORT_URL: 'https://github.com/${{ env.REPORT_REPOSITORY }}/issues/${{ steps.broken-link-report.outputs.issue-number }}'
        run: |
          gh alias set list-reports "issue list \
                                       --repo ${{ env.REPORT_REPOSITORY }} \
                                       --author ${{ env.REPORT_AUTHOR }} \
                                       --label '${{ env.REPORT_LABEL }}'"


          previous_report_url=$(gh list-reports \
                                  --state all \
                                  --limit 2 \
                                  --json url \
                                  --jq '.[].url' \
                                  | grep -v ${{ env.NEW_REPORT_URL }} | head -1)

          # [`gh issue comment`](https://cli.github.com/manual/gh_issue_comment) is used to add a comment to the new issue that links to the previous one.
          gh issue comment ${{ env.NEW_REPORT_URL }} --body "⬅️ [Previous report]($previous_report_url)"

          # If an issue from a previous run is open and assigned to someone, then use [`gh issue comment`](https://cli.github.com/manual/gh_issue_comment) to add a comment with a link to the new issue without closing the old report. To get the issue URL, the `jq` expression processes the resulting JSON output.
          #
          # If an issue from a previous run is open and is not assigned to anyone, use [`gh issue comment`](https://cli.github.com/manual/gh_issue_comment) to add a comment with a link to the new issue. Then use [`gh issue close`](https://cli.github.com/manual/gh_issue_close) and [`gh issue edit`](https://cli.github.com/manual/gh_issue_edit) to close the issue and remove it from the project board.

          for issue_url in $(gh list-reports \
                                  --json assignees,url \
                                  --jq '.[] | select (.assignees != []) | .url'); do
            if [ "$issue_url" != "${{ env.NEW_REPORT_URL }}" ]; then
              gh issue comment $issue_url --body "➡️ [Newer report](${{ env.NEW_REPORT_URL }})"
            fi
          done

          for issue_url in $(gh list-reports \
                                  --search 'no:assignee' \
                                  --json url \
                                  --jq '.[].url'); do
            if [ "$issue_url" != "${{ env.NEW_REPORT_URL }}" ]; then
              gh issue comment $issue_url --body "➡️ [Newer report](${{ env.NEW_REPORT_URL }})"

              # Use [`gh issue close`](https://cli.github.com/manual/gh_issue_close) to close the old issue.
              gh issue close $issue_url

              # Use [`gh issue edit`](https://cli.github.com/manual/gh_issue_edit) to edit the old issue and remove it from a specific GitHub project board.
              gh issue edit $issue_url --remove-project "${{ env.FIRST_RESPONDER_PROJECT }}"
            fi
          done

Nächste Schritte