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Contributing to projects

Learn how to contribute to a project through forking.

About forking

If you want to contribute to someone else's project but don't have write access to the repository, you can use a "fork and pull request" workflow.

A fork is a new repository that shares code and visibility settings with the original “upstream” repository. Forks are often used to iterate on ideas or changes before they are proposed back to the upstream repository, such as in open source projects or when a user does not have write access to the upstream repository.

You can contribute by submitting pull requests from your fork to the upstream repository. For more information, see "Fork a repo."

Forking a repository

This tutorial uses the Spoon-Knife project, a test repository that's hosted on that lets you test the fork and pull request workflow.

  1. Navigate to the Spoon-Knife project at
  2. Click Fork. Fork button

Cloning a fork

You've successfully forked the Spoon-Knife repository, but so far, it only exists on GitHub AE. To be able to work on the project, you will need to clone it to your computer.

You can clone your fork with the command line, GitHub CLI, or GitHub Desktop.

  1. On GitHub AE, navigate to your fork of the Spoon-Knife repository.

  2. Acima da lista de arquivos, clique em Código. Botão "Código"

  3. Copie a URL do repositório.

    • Para clonar o repositório usando HTTPS, em "HTTPS", clique em .
    • Para clonar o repositório usando uma chave SSH, incluindo um certificado emitido pela autoridade de certificação SSH da sua organização, clique em SSH e em .
    • Para clonar um repositório usando GitHub CLI, clique em GitHub CLI e selecione . O ícone da área de transferência para copiar a URL para clonar um repositório com o CLI do GitHub
  4. Abra TerminalTerminalGit Bash.

  5. Altere o diretório de trabalho atual para o local em que deseja ter o diretório clonado.

  6. Type git clone, and then paste the URL you copied earlier. It will look like this, with your GitHub AE username instead of YOUR-USERNAME:

    $ git clone https://hostname/YOUR-USERNAME/Spoon-Knife
  7. Press Enter. Your local clone will be created.

    $ git clone https://hostname/YOUR-USERNAME/Spoon-Knife
    > Cloning into `Spoon-Knife`...
    > remote: Counting objects: 10, done.
    > remote: Compressing objects: 100% (8/8), done.
    > remove: Total 10 (delta 1), reused 10 (delta 1)
    > Unpacking objects: 100% (10/10), done.

Para saber mais sobre a GitHub CLI, confira "Sobre a GitHub CLI".

To create a clone of your fork, use the --clone flag.

gh repo fork REPOSITORY --clone=true
  1. No menu Arquivo, clique em Clonar Repositório.

    Opção de menu Clone (Clonar) no app Mac

    Opção de menu Clone (Clonar) no app Windows

  2. Clique na aba que corresponde à localização do repositório que você deseja clonar. Clique também na URL para inserir o local do repositório manualmente.

    Guias Location (Local) no menu Clone a repository (Clonar um repositório)

    Guias Location (Local) no menu Clone a repository (Clonar um repositório)

  3. Escolha o repositório que você quer clonar na lista.

    Clonar uma lista de repositórios

    Clonar uma lista de repositórios

  4. Clique em Escolher… e procure um caminho local em que deseja clonar o repositório.

    Botão Choose (Escolher)

    Botão Choose (Escolher)

  5. Clique em Clonar.

    Botão Clone (Clonar)

    Botão Clone (Clonar)

Creating a branch to work on

Before making changes to the project, you should create a new branch and check it out. By keeping changes in their own branch, you follow GitHub Flow and ensure that it will be easier to contribute to the same project again in the future. For more information, see "GitHub Flow."

git branch BRANCH-NAME
git checkout BRANCH-NAME
git branch BRANCH-NAME
git checkout BRANCH-NAME

For more information about how to create and manage branches in GitHub Desktop, see "Managing branches."

Making and pushing changes

Go ahead and make a few changes to the project using your favorite text editor, like Visual Studio Code. You could, for example, change the text in index.html to add your GitHub username.

When you're ready to submit your changes, stage and commit your changes. git add . tells Git that you want to include all of your changes in the next commit. git commit takes a snapshot of those changes.

git add .
git commit -m "a short description of the change"
git add .
git commit -m "a short description of the change"

For more information about how to stage and commit changes in GitHub Desktop, see "Committing and reviewing changes to your project."

When you stage and commit files, you essentially tell Git, "Okay, take a snapshot of my changes!" You can continue to make more changes, and take more commit snapshots.

Right now, your changes only exist locally. When you're ready to push your changes up to GitHub AE, push your changes to the remote.

git push
git push

For more information about how to push changes in GitHub Desktop, see "Pushing changes to GitHub."

Making a pull request

At last, you're ready to propose changes into the main project! This is the final step in producing a fork of someone else's project, and arguably the most important. If you've made a change that you feel would benefit the community as a whole, you should definitely consider contributing back.

To do so, head on over to the repository on GitHub AE where your project lives. For this example, it would be at<your_username>/Spoon-Knife. You'll see a banner indicating that your branch is one commit ahead of octocat:main. Click Contribute and then Open a pull request.

GitHub AE will bring you to a page that shows the differences between your fork and the octocat/Spoon-Knife repository. Click Create pull request.

GitHub AE will bring you to a page where you can enter a title and a description of your changes. It's important to provide as much useful information and a rationale for why you're making this pull request in the first place. The project owner needs to be able to determine whether your change is as useful to everyone as you think it is. Finally, click Create pull request.

Managing feedback

Pull Requests are an area for discussion. In this case, the Octocat is very busy, and probably won't merge your changes. For other projects, don't be offended if the project owner rejects your pull request, or asks for more information on why it's been made. It may even be that the project owner chooses not to merge your pull request, and that's totally okay. Your changes exist in your fork. And who knows--maybe someone you've never met will find your changes much more valuable than the original project.

Finding projects

You've successfully forked and contributed back to a repository. Go forth, and contribute some more!