After using GitHub by yourself for a while, you may find yourself wanting to contribute to someone else’s project. Or maybe you’d like to use someone’s project as the starting point for your own. This process is known as forking.
Creating a "fork" is producing a personal copy of someone else's project. Forks act as a sort of bridge between the original repository and your personal copy. You can submit pull requests to help make other people's projects better by offering your changes up to the original project. Forking is at the core of social coding at GitHub. For more information, see "Fork a repo."
This tutorial uses the Spoon-Knife project, a test repository that's hosted on GitHub.com that lets you test the fork and pull request workflow.
- Navigate to the
Spoon-Knifeproject at https://github.com/octocat/Spoon-Knife.
- Click Fork.
- Select an owner for the forked repository.
- By default, forks are named the same as their parent repositories. You can change the name of the fork to distinguish it further.
- Optionally, add a description of your fork.
- Choose whether to copy only the default branch or all branches to the new fork. For many forking scenarios, such as contributing to open-source projects, you only need to copy the default branch. By default, only the default branch is copied.
- Click Create fork.
Note: If you want to copy additional branches from the parent repository, you can do so from the Branches page. For more information, see "Creating and deleting branches within your repository."
You've successfully forked the Spoon-Knife repository, but so far, it only exists on GitHub AE. To be able to work on the project, you will need to clone it to your computer.
You can clone your fork with the command line, GitHub CLI, or GitHub Desktop.
On GitHub AE, navigate to your fork of the Spoon-Knife repository.
Above the list of files, click Code.
Copy the URL for the repository.
- To clone the repository using HTTPS, under "HTTPS", click .
- To clone the repository using an SSH key, including a certificate issued by your organization's SSH certificate authority, click SSH, then click .
- To clone a repository using GitHub CLI, click GitHub CLI, then click .
Open TerminalTerminalGit Bash.
Change the current working directory to the location where you want the cloned directory.
git clone, and then paste the URL you copied earlier. It will look like this, with your GitHub AE username instead of
$ git clone https://hostname/YOUR-USERNAME/Spoon-Knife
Press Enter. Your local clone will be created.
$ git clone https://hostname/YOUR-USERNAME/Spoon-Knife > Cloning into `Spoon-Knife`... > remote: Counting objects: 10, done. > remote: Compressing objects: 100% (8/8), done. > remove: Total 10 (delta 1), reused 10 (delta 1) > Unpacking objects: 100% (10/10), done.
To learn more about GitHub CLI, see "About GitHub CLI."
To create a clone of your fork, use the
gh repo fork repository --clone=true
In the File menu, click Clone Repository.
Click the tab that corresponds to the location of the repository you want to clone. You can also click URL to manually enter the repository location.
Choose the repository you want to clone from the list.
Click Choose... and navigate to a local path where you want to clone the repository.
Go ahead and make a few changes to the project using your favorite text editor, like Visual Studio Code. You could, for example, change the text in
index.html to add your GitHub username.
When you're ready to submit your changes, stage and commit your changes.
git add . tells Git that you want to include all of your changes in the next commit.
git commit takes a snapshot of those changes.
git add . git commit -m "a short description of the change"
git add . git commit -m "a short description of the change"
For more information about how to stage and commit changes in GitHub Desktop, see "Committing and reviewing changes to your project."
When you stage and commit files, you essentially tell Git, "Okay, take a snapshot of my changes!" You can continue to make more changes, and take more commit snapshots.
Right now, your changes only exist locally. When you're ready to push your changes up to GitHub AE, push your changes to the remote.
For more information about how to push changes in GitHub Desktop, see "Pushing changes to GitHub."
At last, you're ready to propose changes into the main project! This is the final step in producing a fork of someone else's project, and arguably the most important. If you've made a change that you feel would benefit the community as a whole, you should definitely consider contributing back.
To do so, head on over to the repository on GitHub AE where your project lives. For this example, it would be at
https://www.github.com/<your_username>/Spoon-Knife. You'll see a banner indicating that your branch is one commit ahead of
octocat:main. Click Contribute and then Open a pull request.
GitHub AE will bring you to a page that shows the differences between your fork and the
octocat/Spoon-Knife repository. Click Create pull request.
GitHub AE will bring you to a page where you can enter a title and a description of your changes. It's important to provide as much useful information and a rationale for why you're making this pull request in the first place. The project owner needs to be able to determine whether your change is as useful to everyone as you think it is. Finally, click Create pull request.
Pull Requests are an area for discussion. In this case, the Octocat is very busy, and probably won't merge your changes. For other projects, don't be offended if the project owner rejects your pull request, or asks for more information on why it's been made. It may even be that the project owner chooses not to merge your pull request, and that's totally okay. Your copy will exist in infamy on the Internet. And who knows--maybe someone you've never met will find your changes much more valuable than the original project.
You've successfully forked and contributed back to a repository. Go forth, and contribute some more!