GitHub Apps are tools that extend GitHub's functionality. GitHub Apps can do things on GitHub like open issues, comment on pull requests, and manage projects. They can also do things outside of GitHub based on events that happen on GitHub. For example, a GitHub App can post on Slack when an issue is opened on GitHub.
You cannot install third-party applications on your enterprise. If you want to use the functionality of a third-party app, you can contact the app developer about creating an app from a manifest or from URL parameters. For more information, see "Registering a GitHub App from a manifest" and "Registering a GitHub App using URL parameters."
You can also build your own GitHub App. For more information, see "About creating GitHub Apps."
In order to use a GitHub App, you must install the app on your user or organization account. When you install the app, you grant the app permission to read or modify your repository and organization data. The specific permissions depends on the app, and GitHub will tell you what permissions the app requested before you install the app. When you install the app, you will also specify what repositories the app can access. If the app requires any additional configuration, the app will direct you to do so. For more information, see "Installing a GitHub App from a third party" and "Installing your own GitHub App."
You may also need to authorize a GitHub App to verify your identity, know what resources you can access, or take actions on your behalf. If you need to authorize the app, the app will prompt you to do so. For more information, see "Authorizing GitHub Apps."
Occasionally, the GitHub App will request updated permissions. GitHub will notify you when this occurs. In order for the app to continue to function, you will need to review and approve the updated permissions. For more information, see "Approving updated permissions for a GitHub App."
Before you install or authorize a GitHub App, you should make sure that you trust the app developer. If you no longer use the app, you should suspend or uninstall the app and/or revoke your authorization of the app. For more information, see "Reviewing and modifying installed GitHub Apps" and "Reviewing and revoking authorization of GitHub Apps."
GitHub also supports OAuth apps. Unlike GitHub Apps, you do not install an OAuth app or control what repositories it can access.
Both OAuth apps and GitHub Apps use OAuth 2.0.
OAuth apps can only act on behalf of a user, while GitHub Apps can either act on behalf of a user or independently of a user.