Deploying with GitHub Actions

Learn how to control deployments with features like environments and concurrency.

ノート: GitHub Actionsは現在GitHub AEでベータです。

はじめに

GitHub Actions offers features that let you control deployments. You can:

  • Trigger workflows with a variety of events.
  • Configure environments to set rules before a job can proceed and to limit access to secrets.
  • Use concurrency to control the number of deployments running at a time.

For more information about continuous deployment, see "About continuous deployment."

必要な環境

You should be familiar with the syntax for GitHub Actions. 詳しい情報については、「GitHub Actions を学ぶ」を参照してください。

Triggering your deployment

You can use a variety of events to trigger your deployment workflow. Some of the most common are: pull_request, push, and workflow_dispatch.

For example, a workflow with the following triggers runs whenever:

  • There is a push to the main branch.
  • A pull request targeting the main branch is opened, synchronized, or reopened.
  • Someone manually triggers it.
on:
  push:
    branches:
      - main
  pull_request:
    branches:
      - main
  workflow_dispatch:

詳しい情報については、「ワークフローをトリガーするイベント」を参照してください。

環境の使用

Environments are used to describe a general deployment target like production, staging, or development. When a GitHub Actions workflow deploys to an environment, the environment is displayed on the main page of the repository. You can use environments to require approval for a job to proceed, restrict which branches can trigger a workflow, or limit access to secrets. For more information about creating environments, see "Using environments for deployment."

Using concurrency

並行処理により、同じ並行処理グループを使用する単一のジョブまたはワークフローのみが一度に実行されます。 並行処理では、環境で一度に最大 1 つのデプロイメントが進行中で、1 つのデプロイメントが保留になるようにすることができます。

Note: concurrency and environment are not connected. The concurrency value can be any string; it does not need to be an environment name. Additionally, if another workflow uses the same environment but does not specify concurrency, that workflow will not be subject to any concurrency rules.

For example, when the following workflow runs, it will be paused with the status pending if any job or workflow that uses the production concurrency group is in progress. It will also cancel any job or workflow that uses the production concurrency group and has the status pending. This means that there will be a maximum of one running and one pending job or workflow in that uses the production concurrency group.

name: Deployment

concurrency: production

on:
  push:
    branches:
      - main

jobs:
  deployment:
    runs-on: ubuntu-latest
    environment: production
    steps:
      - name: deploy
        # ...deployment-specific steps

You can also specify concurrency at the job level. This will allow other jobs in the workflow to proceed even if the concurrent job is pending.

name: Deployment

on:
  push:
    branches:
      - main

jobs:
  deployment:
    runs-on: ubuntu-latest
    environment: production
    concurrency: production
    steps:
      - name: deploy
        # ...deployment-specific steps

You can also use cancel-in-progress to cancel any currently running job or workflow in the same concurrency group.

name: Deployment

concurrency: 
  group: production
  cancel-in-progress: true

on:
  push:
    branches:
      - main

jobs:
  deployment:
    runs-on: ubuntu-latest
    environment: production
    steps:
      - name: deploy
        # ...deployment-specific steps

デプロイメント履歴の表示

When a GitHub Actions workflow deploys to an environment, the environment is displayed on the main page of the repository. For more information about viewing deployments to environments, see "Viewing deployment history."

Monitoring workflow runs

すべてのワークフローの実行は、実行の進行を示すリアルタイムのグラフを生成します。 You can use this graph to monitor and debug deployments. For more information see, "Using the visualization graph."

You can also view the logs of each workflow run and the history of workflow runs. 詳しい情報については、「ワークフロー実行の履歴を表示する」を参照してください。

Tracking deployments through apps

You can also build an app that uses deployment and deployment status webhooks to track deployments. When a workflow job that references an environment runs, it creates a deployment object with the environment property set to the name of your environment. As the workflow progresses, it also creates deployment status objects with the environment property set to the name of your environment, the environment_url property set to the URL for environment (if specified in the workflow), and the state property set to the status of the job. For more information, see "Apps" and "Webhook events and payloads."

Displaying a status badge

You can use a status badge to display the status of your deployment workflow. ステータスバッジは、ワークフローが現在失敗しているかパスしているかを示します。 ステータスバッジを追加する一般的な場所は、リポジトリのREADME.mdファイル中ですが、任意の好きなWebページに追加できます。 デフォルトでは、バッジはデフォルトブランチのステータスを示します。 特定のブランチやイベントに対するワークフローの実行のステータスを、URL中のbranch及びeventクエリパラメータを使って表示することもできます。

ステータスバッジの例

For more information, see "Adding a workflow status badge."

次のステップ

This article demonstrated features of GitHub Actions that you can add to your deployment workflows.

GitHub AE offers CD workflow templates for several popular services, such as Azure Web App. To learn how to get started using a workflow template, see "Using workflow templates" or browse the full list of deployment workflow templates. You can also check out our more detailed guides for specific deployment workflows, such as "Deploying to Azure App Service."

Many service providers also offer actions on GitHub Marketplace for deploying to their service. For the full list, see GitHub Marketplace.

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