Skip to main content

ランナーでの GitHub CLI の使用

継続的インテグレーション (CI) のために高度な GitHub Actions 機能を使用する方法。

サンプルの概要

この記事では、ワークフローの例を使って、GitHub Actions の主な CI 機能の一部を示します。このワークフローがトリガーされると、GitHub Docs サイトに壊れたリンクがあるかどうかを確認するスクリプトが自動的に実行されます。 壊れたリンクが見つかった場合、ワークフローで詳しい情報を含む GitHub のイシューが GitHub CLI を使用して作成されます。

次の図は、ワークフローの手順とジョブ内でそれを実行する方法の概要を示したものです。

GitHub CLI を使って issue を作成するワークフローをトリガーするイベントの図。

この例で使用されている機能

このワークフロー例は、GitHub Actions の次の機能を示しています。

機能実装
定期的なワークフローの実行schedule
トークンのアクセス許可の設定permissions
特定の条件が満たされない限り、ジョブが実行されないようにするif
ワークフロー内のシークレットの参照シークレット
リポジトリをランナーにクローンするactions/checkout
ランナーへの node のインストールactions/setup-node
サード パーティのアクションの使用peter-evans/create-issue-from-file
ランナーでのスクリプトの実行script/check-english-links.js の使用
出力ファイルの生成> 演算子を使用した出力のパイプ処理
GitHub CLI を使用した既存の Issue の確認gh issue list
GitHub CLI を使用した Issue へのコメントgh issue comment

ワークフローの例

次のワークフローは、GitHub ドキュメント エンジニアリング チームによって作成されました。 github/docs リポジトリ内でこのファイルの最新バージョンを確認するには、次を参照してください。 check-all-english-links.yml

次のワークフローでは、すべての英語リンクを 1 日 1 回確認し、新しい issue を作成してリンク切れを報告し、ドキュメント コンテンツ チームが確認できるようにします。

YAML
name: Check all English links

これにより、GitHub リポジトリの [アクション] タブに表示されるワークフローの名前が定義されます。

on:
  workflow_dispatch:
  schedule:
    - cron: '40 19 * * *' # once a day at 19:40 UTC / 11:40 PST

Defines the workflow_dispatch and scheduled as triggers for the workflow.

The workflow_dispatch event lets you manually run this workflow from the UI. For more information, see workflow_dispatch.

The schedule event lets you use cron syntax to define a regular interval for automatically triggering the workflow. For more information, see schedule.

permissions:
  contents: read
  issues: write

Modifies the default permissions granted to GITHUB_TOKEN. This will vary depending on the needs of your workflow. For more information, see "権限をジョブに割り当てる."

jobs:

Groups together all the jobs that run in the workflow file.

  check_all_english_links:
    name: Check all links

Defines a job with the ID check_all_english_links, and the name Check all links, that is stored within the jobs key.

    if: github.repository == 'github/docs-internal'

Only run the check_all_english_links job if the repository is named docs-internal and is within the github organization. Otherwise, the job is marked as skipped.

    runs-on: ubuntu-latest

Configures the job to run on an Ubuntu Linux runner. This means that the job will execute on a fresh virtual machine hosted by GitHub. For syntax examples using other runners, see "ギットハブ アクション のワークフロー構文."

    env:
      GITHUB_TOKEN: ${{ secrets.DOCUBOT_READORG_REPO_WORKFLOW_SCOPES }}
      FIRST_RESPONDER_PROJECT: Docs content first responder
      REPORT_AUTHOR: docubot
      REPORT_LABEL: broken link report
      REPORT_REPOSITORY: github/docs-content

Creates custom environment variables, and redefines the built-in GITHUB_TOKEN variable to use a custom secret. These variables will be referenced later in the workflow.

    steps:

Groups together all the steps that will run as part of the check_all_english_links job. Each job in the workflow has its own steps section.

      - name: Check out repo's default branch
        uses: actions/checkout@v4

The uses keyword tells the job to retrieve the action named actions/checkout. This is an action that checks out your repository and downloads it to the runner, allowing you to run actions against your code (such as testing tools). You must use the checkout action any time your workflow will run against the repository's code or you are using an action defined in the repository.

      - name: Setup Node
        uses: actions/setup-node@v3
        with:
          node-version: 16.13.x
          cache: npm

This step uses the actions/setup-node action to install the specified version of the node software package on the runner, which gives you access to the npm command.

      - name: Run the "npm ci" command
        run: npm ci
      - name: Run the "npm run build" command
        run: npm run build

The run keyword tells the job to execute a command on the runner. In this case, the npm ci and npm run build commands are run as separate steps to install and build the Node.js application in the repository.

      - name: Run script
        run: |
          script/check-english-links.js > broken_links.md

This run command executes a script that is stored in the repository at script/check-english-links.js, and pipes the output to a file called broken_links.md.

      - if: ${{ failure() }}
        name: Get title for issue
        id: check
        run: echo "title=$(head -1 broken_links.md)" >> $GITHUB_OUTPUT

If the check-english-links.js script detects broken links and returns a non-zero (failure) exit status, then use a workflow command to set an output that has the value of the first line of the broken_links.md file (this is used the next step).

check-english-links.js returns 0 if no links are broken, and 1 if any links are broken. When an Actions step's exit code is 1, the action run's job status is failure and the run ends.

The following steps create an issue for the broken link report only if any links are broken, so if: ${{ failure() }} ensures the steps run despite the previous step's failure of the job.

      - if: ${{ failure() }}
        name: Create issue from file
        id: broken-link-report
        uses: peter-evans/create-issue-from-file@ceef9be92406ace67ab5421f66570acf213ec395
        with:
          token: ${{ env.GITHUB_TOKEN }}
          title: ${{ steps.check.outputs.title }}
          content-filepath: ./broken_links.md
          repository: ${{ env.REPORT_REPOSITORY }}
          labels: ${{ env.REPORT_LABEL }}

Uses the peter-evans/create-issue-from-file action to create a new GitHub issue. This example is pinned to a specific version of the action, using the ceef9be92406ace67ab5421f66570acf213ec395 SHA.

      - if: ${{ failure() }}
        name: Close and/or comment on old issues
        env:
          NEW_REPORT_URL: 'https://github.com/${{ env.REPORT_REPOSITORY }}/issues/${{ steps.broken-link-report.outputs.issue-number }}'
        run: |
          gh alias set list-reports "issue list \
                                       --repo ${{ env.REPORT_REPOSITORY }} \
                                       --author ${{ env.REPORT_AUTHOR }} \
                                       --label '${{ env.REPORT_LABEL }}'"
          previous_report_url=$(gh list-reports \
                                  --state all \
                                  --limit 2 \
                                  --json url \
                                  --jq '.[].url' \
                                  | grep -v ${{ env.NEW_REPORT_URL }} | head -1)

Uses gh issue list to locate the previously created issue from earlier runs. This is aliased to gh list-reports for simpler processing in later steps.

          gh issue comment ${{ env.NEW_REPORT_URL }} --body "⬅️ [Previous report]($previous_report_url)"

gh issue comment is used to add a comment to the new issue that links to the previous one.

          for issue_url in $(gh list-reports \
                                  --json assignees,url \
                                  --jq '.[] | select (.assignees != []) | .url'); do
            if [ "$issue_url" != "${{ env.NEW_REPORT_URL }}" ]; then
              gh issue comment $issue_url --body "➡️ [Newer report](${{ env.NEW_REPORT_URL }})"
            fi
          done
          for issue_url in $(gh list-reports \
                                  --search 'no:assignee' \
                                  --json url \
                                  --jq '.[].url'); do
            if [ "$issue_url" != "${{ env.NEW_REPORT_URL }}" ]; then
              gh issue comment $issue_url --body "➡️ [Newer report](${{ env.NEW_REPORT_URL }})"

If an issue from a previous run is open and assigned to someone, then use gh issue comment to add a comment with a link to the new issue without closing the old report. To get the issue URL, the jq expression processes the resulting JSON output.

If an issue from a previous run is open and is not assigned to anyone, use gh issue comment to add a comment with a link to the new issue. Then use gh issue close and gh issue edit to close the issue and remove it from the project board.

              gh issue close $issue_url

Use gh issue close to close the old issue.

              gh issue edit $issue_url --remove-project "${{ env.FIRST_RESPONDER_PROJECT }}"
            fi
          done

Use gh issue edit to edit the old issue and remove it from a specific GitHub project board.

# これにより、GitHub リポジトリの [アクション] タブに表示されるワークフローの名前が定義されます。
name: Check all English links

# Defines the `workflow_dispatch` and `scheduled` as triggers for the workflow.
#
# The `workflow_dispatch` event lets you manually run this workflow from the UI. For more information, see [`workflow_dispatch`](/actions/using-workflows/events-that-trigger-workflows#workflow_dispatch).
#
# The `schedule` event lets you use `cron` syntax to define a regular interval for automatically triggering the workflow. For more information, see [`schedule`](/actions/using-workflows/events-that-trigger-workflows#schedule).
on:
  workflow_dispatch:
  schedule:
    - cron: '40 19 * * *' # once a day at 19:40 UTC / 11:40 PST

# Modifies the default permissions granted to `GITHUB_TOKEN`. This will vary depending on the needs of your workflow. For more information, see "[AUTOTITLE](/actions/using-jobs/assigning-permissions-to-jobs)."
permissions:
  contents: read
  issues: write

# Groups together all the jobs that run in the workflow file.
jobs:
  # Defines a job with the ID `check_all_english_links`, and the name `Check all links`, that is stored within the `jobs` key.
  check_all_english_links:
    name: Check all links
    # Only run the `check_all_english_links` job if the repository is named `docs-internal` and is within the `github` organization. Otherwise, the job is marked as _skipped_.
    if: github.repository == 'github/docs-internal'
    # Configures the job to run on an Ubuntu Linux runner. This means that the job will execute on a fresh virtual machine hosted by GitHub. For syntax examples using other runners, see "[AUTOTITLE](/actions/using-workflows/workflow-syntax-for-github-actions#jobsjob_idruns-on)."
    runs-on: ubuntu-latest
    # Creates custom environment variables, and redefines the built-in `GITHUB_TOKEN` variable to use a custom [secret](/actions/security-guides/using-secrets-in-github-actions). These variables will be referenced later in the workflow.
    env:
      GITHUB_TOKEN: ${{ secrets.DOCUBOT_READORG_REPO_WORKFLOW_SCOPES }}
      FIRST_RESPONDER_PROJECT: Docs content first responder
      REPORT_AUTHOR: docubot
      REPORT_LABEL: broken link report
      REPORT_REPOSITORY: github/docs-content
    # Groups together all the steps that will run as part of the `check_all_english_links` job. Each job in the workflow has its own `steps` section.
    steps:
      # The `uses` keyword tells the job to retrieve the action named `actions/checkout`. This is an action that checks out your repository and downloads it to the runner, allowing you to run actions against your code (such as testing tools). You must use the checkout action any time your workflow will run against the repository's code or you are using an action defined in the repository.
      - name: Check out repo's default branch
        uses: actions/checkout@v4
      # This step uses the `actions/setup-node` action to install the specified version of the `node` software package on the runner, which gives you access to the `npm` command.
      - name: Setup Node
        uses: actions/setup-node@v3
        with:
          node-version: 16.13.x
          cache: npm
      # The `run` keyword tells the job to execute a command on the runner. In this case, the `npm ci` and `npm run build` commands are run as separate steps to install and build the Node.js application in the repository.
      - name: Run the "npm ci" command
        run: npm ci
      - name: Run the "npm run build" command
        run: npm run build
      # This `run` command executes a script that is stored in the repository at `script/check-english-links.js`, and pipes the output to a file called `broken_links.md`.
      - name: Run script
        run: |
          script/check-english-links.js > broken_links.md

      # If the `check-english-links.js` script detects broken links and returns a non-zero (failure) exit status, then use a [workflow command](/actions/using-workflows/workflow-commands-for-github-actions#setting-an-output-parameter) to set an output that has the value of the first line of the `broken_links.md` file (this is used the next step).
      #
      # `check-english-links.js` returns 0 if no links are broken, and 1 if any links are broken. When an Actions step's exit code is 1, the action run's job status is failure and the run ends.
      #
      # The following steps create an issue for the broken link report only if any links are broken, so `if: ${{ failure() }}` ensures the steps run despite the previous step's failure of the job.
      - if: ${{ failure() }}
        name: Get title for issue
        id: check
        run: echo "title=$(head -1 broken_links.md)" >> $GITHUB_OUTPUT
      # Uses the `peter-evans/create-issue-from-file` action to create a new GitHub issue. This example is pinned to a specific version of the action, using the `ceef9be92406ace67ab5421f66570acf213ec395` SHA.
      - if: ${{ failure() }}
        name: Create issue from file
        id: broken-link-report
        uses: peter-evans/create-issue-from-file@ceef9be92406ace67ab5421f66570acf213ec395
        with:
          token: ${{ env.GITHUB_TOKEN }}

          title: ${{ steps.check.outputs.title }}
          content-filepath: ./broken_links.md
          repository: ${{ env.REPORT_REPOSITORY }}
          labels: ${{ env.REPORT_LABEL }}
      # Uses [`gh issue list`](https://cli.github.com/manual/gh_issue_list) to locate the previously created issue from earlier runs. This is [aliased](https://cli.github.com/manual/gh_alias_set) to `gh list-reports` for simpler processing in later steps.
      - if: ${{ failure() }}
        name: Close and/or comment on old issues
        env:
          NEW_REPORT_URL: 'https://github.com/${{ env.REPORT_REPOSITORY }}/issues/${{ steps.broken-link-report.outputs.issue-number }}'
        run: |
          gh alias set list-reports "issue list \
                                       --repo ${{ env.REPORT_REPOSITORY }} \
                                       --author ${{ env.REPORT_AUTHOR }} \
                                       --label '${{ env.REPORT_LABEL }}'"


          previous_report_url=$(gh list-reports \
                                  --state all \
                                  --limit 2 \
                                  --json url \
                                  --jq '.[].url' \
                                  | grep -v ${{ env.NEW_REPORT_URL }} | head -1)

          # [`gh issue comment`](https://cli.github.com/manual/gh_issue_comment) is used to add a comment to the new issue that links to the previous one.
          gh issue comment ${{ env.NEW_REPORT_URL }} --body "⬅️ [Previous report]($previous_report_url)"

          # If an issue from a previous run is open and assigned to someone, then use [`gh issue comment`](https://cli.github.com/manual/gh_issue_comment) to add a comment with a link to the new issue without closing the old report. To get the issue URL, the `jq` expression processes the resulting JSON output.
          #
          # If an issue from a previous run is open and is not assigned to anyone, use [`gh issue comment`](https://cli.github.com/manual/gh_issue_comment) to add a comment with a link to the new issue. Then use [`gh issue close`](https://cli.github.com/manual/gh_issue_close) and [`gh issue edit`](https://cli.github.com/manual/gh_issue_edit) to close the issue and remove it from the project board.

          for issue_url in $(gh list-reports \
                                  --json assignees,url \
                                  --jq '.[] | select (.assignees != []) | .url'); do
            if [ "$issue_url" != "${{ env.NEW_REPORT_URL }}" ]; then
              gh issue comment $issue_url --body "➡️ [Newer report](${{ env.NEW_REPORT_URL }})"
            fi
          done

          for issue_url in $(gh list-reports \
                                  --search 'no:assignee' \
                                  --json url \
                                  --jq '.[].url'); do
            if [ "$issue_url" != "${{ env.NEW_REPORT_URL }}" ]; then
              gh issue comment $issue_url --body "➡️ [Newer report](${{ env.NEW_REPORT_URL }})"

              # Use [`gh issue close`](https://cli.github.com/manual/gh_issue_close) to close the old issue.
              gh issue close $issue_url

              # Use [`gh issue edit`](https://cli.github.com/manual/gh_issue_edit) to edit the old issue and remove it from a specific GitHub project board.
              gh issue edit $issue_url --remove-project "${{ env.FIRST_RESPONDER_PROJECT }}"
            fi
          done

次の手順