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Working with the npm registry

You can configure npm to publish packages to GitHub Packages and to use packages stored on GitHub Packages as dependencies in an npm project.

GitHub Packages 适用于 GitHub Free、GitHub Pro、面向组织的 GitHub Free、GitHub Team, GitHub Enterprise Cloud, GitHub Enterprise Server 3.0 或更高版本以及 GitHub AE。 有关升级 GitHub Enterprise Server 实例更多信息,请参阅“关于升级至新版本”和 升级助手以从你当前的发布版本中查找升级路径。

注意:这种包类型可能不适用于你的实例,因为站点管理员可以启用或禁用每种支持的包类型。 有关详细信息,请参阅“为企业配置包支持”。

Limits for published npm versions

If you publish over 1,000 npm package versions to GitHub Packages, you may see performance issues and timeouts occur during usage.

In the future, to improve performance of the service, you won't be able to publish more than 1,000 versions of a package on GitHub. Any versions published before hitting this limit will still be readable.

If you reach this limit, consider deleting package versions or contact Support for help. When this limit is enforced, our documentation will be updated with a way to work around this limit. For more information, see "Deleting and restoring a package" or "Contacting Support."

Authenticating to GitHub Packages

需要访问令牌才能发布、安装和删除包。

可使用个人访问令牌 (PAT) 向 GitHub Packages 或 GitHub Enterprise Server API 进行身份验证。 创建个人访问令牌时,可根据需要为令牌分配不同的作用域。 有关 PAT 的包相关范围的详细信息,请参阅“关于 GitHub Packages 的权限”。

要在 GitHub Actions 工作流程内向 GitHub Packages 注册表验证,您可以使用:

  • GITHUB_TOKEN 发布与工作流存储库相关联的包。
  • PAT 来安装与其他专用存储库(GITHUB_TOKEN 无法访问)相关联的包。

Authenticating with a personal access token

您必须使用具有适当范围的个人访问令牌才可在 GitHub Packages 中发布和安装。 有关详细信息,请参阅“关于 GitHub Packages”。

You can authenticate to GitHub Packages with npm by either editing your per-user ~/.npmrc file to include your personal access token or by logging in to npm on the command line using your username and personal access token.

To authenticate by adding your personal access token to your ~/.npmrc file, edit the ~/.npmrc file for your project to include the following line, replacing HOSTNAME with the host name of your GitHub Enterprise Server instance and TOKEN with your personal access token. Create a new ~/.npmrc file if one doesn't exist.

If your instance has subdomain isolation enabled:

//npm.HOSTNAME//:_authToken=TOKEN

If your instance has subdomain isolation disabled:

//HOSTNAME/_registry/npm/:_authToken=TOKEN

To authenticate by logging in to npm, use the npm login command, replacing USERNAME with your GitHub username, TOKEN with your personal access token, and PUBLIC-EMAIL-ADDRESS with your email address.

If GitHub Packages is not your default package registry for using npm and you want to use the npm audit command, we recommend you use the --scope flag with the owner of the package when you authenticate to GitHub Packages.

If your instance has subdomain isolation enabled:

$ npm login --scope=@OWNER --registry=https://npm.HOSTNAME/

> Username: USERNAME
> Password: TOKEN
> Email: PUBLIC-EMAIL-ADDRESS

If your instance has subdomain isolation disabled:

$ npm login --scope=@OWNER --registry=https://HOSTNAME/_registry/npm/
> Username: USERNAME
> Password: TOKEN
> Email: PUBLIC-EMAIL-ADDRESS

Publishing a package

Note: Package names and scopes must only use lowercase letters.

By default, GitHub Packages publishes a package in the GitHub repository you specify in the name field of the package.json file. For example, you would publish a package named @my-org/test to the my-org/test GitHub repository. If you're running npm v8.5.3 or later, you can add a summary for the package listing page by including a README.md file in your package directory. For more information, see "Working with package.json" and "How to create Node.js Modules" in the npm documentation.

You can publish multiple packages to the same GitHub repository by including a URL field in the package.json file. For more information, see "Publishing multiple packages to the same repository."

You can set up the scope mapping for your project using either a local .npmrc file in the project or using the publishConfig option in the package.json. GitHub Packages only supports scoped npm packages. Scoped packages have names with the format of @owner/name. Scoped packages always begin with an @ symbol. You may need to update the name in your package.json to use the scoped name. For example, "name": "@codertocat/hello-world-npm".

在发布包后,您可以在 GitHub 上查看该包。 有关详细信息,请参阅“查看包”。

Publishing a package using a local .npmrc file

You can use an .npmrc file to configure the scope mapping for your project. In the .npmrc file, use the GitHub Packages URL and account owner so GitHub Packages knows where to route package requests. Using an .npmrc file prevents other developers from accidentally publishing the package to npmjs.org instead of GitHub Packages.

  1. 向 GitHub Packages 验证。 有关详细信息,请参阅“向 GitHub Packages 进行身份验证”。

  2. 在与 package.json 文件相同的目录中,创建或编辑 .npmrc 文件以包含指定 GitHub Packages URL 和帐户所有者的行。 将 OWNER 替换为拥有项目所在存储库的用户或组织帐户的名称。

    如果启用了子域隔离:

    @OWNER:registry=https://npm.HOSTNAME

    如果禁用了子域隔离:

    @OWNER:registry=https://HOSTNAME/_registry/npm
  3. 将 .npmrc 文件添加到 GitHub Packages 可在其中找到项目的存储库。 有关详细信息,请参阅“将文件添加到存储库”。

  4. Verify the name of your package in your project's package.json. The name field must contain the scope and the name of the package. For example, if your package is called "test", and you are publishing to the "My-org" GitHub organization, the name field in your package.json should be @my-org/test.

  5. 验证项目 package.json 中的 repository 字段。 repository 字段必须与 GitHub 存储库的 URL 匹配。 例如,如果存储库 URL 是 github.com/my-org/test,则存储库字段应为 https://github.com/my-org/test.git

  6. 发布包:

    $ npm publish

Publishing a package using publishConfig in the package.json file

You can use publishConfig element in the package.json file to specify the registry where you want the package published. For more information, see "publishConfig" in the npm documentation.

  1. Edit the package.json file for your package and include a publishConfig entry.

    If your instance has subdomain isolation enabled:

    "publishConfig": {
      "registry":"https://npm.HOSTNAME/"
    },

    If your instance has subdomain isolation disabled:

    "publishConfig": {
       "registry":"https://HOSTNAME/_registry/npm/"
     },
  2. 验证项目 package.json 中的 repository 字段。 repository 字段必须与 GitHub 存储库的 URL 匹配。 例如,如果存储库 URL 是 github.com/my-org/test,则存储库字段应为 https://github.com/my-org/test.git

  3. 发布包:

    $ npm publish

Publishing multiple packages to the same repository

To publish multiple packages to the same repository, you can include the URL of the GitHub repository in the repository field of the package.json file for each package.

To ensure the repository's URL is correct, replace REPOSITORY with the name of the repository containing the package you want to publish, and OWNER with the name of the user or organization account on GitHub that owns the repository.

GitHub Packages will match the repository based on the URL, instead of based on the package name.

"repository":"https://HOSTNAME/OWNER/REPOSITORY",

Installing a package

You can install packages from GitHub Packages by adding the packages as dependencies in the package.json file for your project. For more information on using a package.json in your project, see "Working with package.json" in the npm documentation.

By default, you can add packages from one organization. For more information, see "Installing packages from other organizations."

You also need to add the .npmrc file to your project so that all requests to install packages will go through GitHub Packages. When you route all package requests through GitHub Packages, you can use both scoped and unscoped packages from npmjs.org. For more information, see "npm-scope" in the npm documentation.

  1. 向 GitHub Packages 验证。 有关详细信息,请参阅“向 GitHub Packages 进行身份验证”。

  2. 在与 package.json 文件相同的目录中,创建或编辑 .npmrc 文件以包含指定 GitHub Packages URL 和帐户所有者的行。 将 OWNER 替换为拥有项目所在存储库的用户或组织帐户的名称。

    如果启用了子域隔离:

    @OWNER:registry=https://npm.HOSTNAME

    如果禁用了子域隔离:

    @OWNER:registry=https://HOSTNAME/_registry/npm
  3. 将 .npmrc 文件添加到 GitHub Packages 可在其中找到项目的存储库。 有关详细信息,请参阅“将文件添加到存储库”。

  4. Configure package.json in your project to use the package you are installing. To add your package dependencies to the package.json file for GitHub Packages, specify the full-scoped package name, such as @my-org/server. For packages from npmjs.com, specify the full name, such as @babel/core or @lodash. For example, this following package.json uses the @octo-org/octo-app package as a dependency.

    {
      "name": "@my-org/server",
      "version": "1.0.0",
      "description": "Server app that uses the @octo-org/octo-app package",
      "main": "index.js",
      "author": "",
      "license": "MIT",
      "dependencies": {
        "@octo-org/octo-app": "1.0.0"
      }
    }
    
  5. Install the package.

    $ npm install

Installing packages from other organizations

By default, you can only use GitHub Packages packages from one organization. If you'd like to route package requests to multiple organizations and users, you can add additional lines to your .npmrc file, replacing HOSTNAME with the host name of your GitHub Enterprise Server instance and OWNER with the name of the user or organization account that owns the repository containing your project.

If your instance has subdomain isolation enabled:

@OWNER:registry=https://npm.HOSTNAME
@OWNER:registry=https://npm.HOSTNAME

If your instance has subdomain isolation disabled:

@OWNER:registry=https://HOSTNAME/_registry/npm
@OWNER:registry=https://HOSTNAME/_registry/npm

Using the official NPM registry

GitHub Packages allows you to access the official NPM registry at registry.npmjs.com, if your GitHub Enterprise Server administrator has enabled this feature. For more information, see Connecting to the official NPM registry.