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About self-hosted runners

You can host your own runners and customize the environment used to run jobs in your GitHub Actions workflows.

About self-hosted runners

A self-hosted runner is a system that you deploy and manage to execute jobs from GitHub Actions on GitHub AE. For more information about GitHub Actions, see "Understanding GitHub Actions" and "About GitHub Actions for enterprises."

Com os executores auto-hospedados, você pode criar configurações de hardware personalizadas de acordo com suas necessidades, com o poder de processamento ou a memória para executar trabalhos maiores, instalar programas de software disponíveis na sua rede local e escolher um sistema operacional. Os executores auto-hospedados podem ser físicos, virtuais, em um contêiner, no local ou em uma nuvem.

You can add self-hosted runners at various levels in the management hierarchy:

  • Repository-level runners are dedicated to a single repository.
  • Organization-level runners can process jobs for multiple repositories in an organization.
  • Enterprise-level runners can be assigned to multiple organizations in an enterprise account.

A sua máquina do executor conecta-se ao GitHub AE usando o aplicativo do executor auto-hospedado de GitHub Actions. O aplicativo de executor do GitHub Actions tem código aberto. Você pode contribuir e apresentar problemas no repositório do executor. When a new version is released, the runner application automatically updates itself when a job is assigned to the runner, or within a week of release if the runner hasn't been assigned any jobs.

A self-hosted runner is automatically removed from GitHub AE if it has not connected to GitHub Actions for more than 30 days.

For more information about installing and using self-hosted runners, see "Adding self-hosted runners" and "Using self-hosted runners in a workflow."

Characteristics of self-hosted runners

Self-hosted runners are a highly configurable way to run workflows in your own custom environment. Self-hosted runners:

  • Receive automatic updates for the self-hosted runner application only, though you may disable automatic updates of the runner. For more information about controlling runner software updates on self-hosted runners, see "Autoscaling with self-hosted runners." You are responsible for updating the operating system and all other software.
  • Can use cloud services or local machines that you already pay for.
  • Are customizable to your hardware, operating system, software, and security requirements.
  • Don't need to have a clean instance for every job execution.
  • Are free to use with GitHub Actions, but you are responsible for the cost of maintaining your runner machines.
  • Can be organized into groups to restrict access to specific organizations and repositories. For more information, see "Managing access to self-hosted runners using groups."

Requirements for self-hosted runner machines

You can use any machine as a self-hosted runner as long at it meets these requirements:

Autoscaling your self-hosted runners

You can automatically increase or decrease the number of self-hosted runners in your environment in response to the webhook events you receive. For more information, see "Autoscaling with self-hosted runners."

Usage limits

There are some limits on GitHub Actions usage when using self-hosted runners. These limits are subject to change.

  • Tempo de execução do fluxo de trabalho – Cada execução de fluxo de trabalho é limitada a 35 dias. Se a execução de um fluxo de trabalho atingir esse limite, a execução do fluxo de trabalho será cancelada. Esse período inclui a duração da execução e o tempo gasto em espera e aprovação.
  • Job queue time - Each job for self-hosted runners can be queued for a maximum of 24 hours. If a self-hosted runner does not start executing the job within this limit, the job is terminated and fails to complete.
  • Solicitações de API – Você pode executar até mil solicitações à API do GitHub em uma hora em todas as ações de um repositório. Se o número de solicitações for excedido, as chamadas à API adicionais falharão, o que poderá causar falha nos trabalhos.
  • Job matrix - Uma matriz de tarefas pode gerar 256 tarefas no máximo por execução do fluxo de trabalho. Esse limite se aplica a executores hospedados por GitHub AE e auto-hospedados.
  • Fila de execução de fluxo de trabalho – No máximo, 500 execuções de fluxo de trabalho podem ser colocadas na fila em um intervalo de dez segundos por repositório. Se a execução de um fluxo de trabalho atingir esse limite, a execução do fluxo de trabalho terminará e falhará em ser concluída.

Workflow continuity for self-hosted runners

Se os serviços de GitHub Actions estiverem temporariamente indisponíveis, a execução do fluxo de trabalho será descartada se não tiver sido enfileirada em 30 minutos após ser acionada. Por exemplo, se um fluxo de trabalho for acionado e os serviços de GitHub Actions não estiverem disponíveis por 31 minutos ou mais, a execução do fluxo de trabalho não será processada.

Supported architectures and operating systems for self-hosted runners

The following operating systems are supported for the self-hosted runner application.

Linux

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 or later
  • CentOS 7 or later
  • Oracle Linux 7
  • Fedora 29 or later
  • Debian 9 or later
  • Ubuntu 16.04 or later
  • Linux Mint 18 or later
  • openSUSE 15 or later
  • SUSE Enterprise Linux (SLES) 12 SP2 or later

Windows

  • Windows 7 64-bit
  • Windows 8.1 64-bit
  • Windows 10 64-bit
  • Windows Server 2012 R2 64-bit
  • Windows Server 2019 64-bit

macOS

  • macOS 10.13 (High Sierra) or later

Architectures

The following processor architectures are supported for the self-hosted runner application.

  • x64 - Linux, macOS, Windows.
  • ARM64 - Linux.
  • ARM32 - Linux.

Communication between self-hosted runners and GitHub AE

The self-hosted runner connects to GitHub AE to receive job assignments and to download new versions of the runner application. The self-hosted runner uses an HTTPS long poll that opens a connection to GitHub AE for 50 seconds, and if no response is received, it then times out and creates a new long poll. The application must be running on the machine to accept and run GitHub Actions jobs.

The connection between self-hosted runners and GitHub AE is over HTTPS (port 443).

Only an outbound connection from the runner to your enterprise is required. There is no need for an inbound connection from your enterprise to the runner.

You must ensure that the self-hosted runner has appropriate network access to communicate with your GitHub AE URL and its subdomains. For example, if your subdomain for GitHub AE is octoghae, then you will need to allow the self-hosted runner to access octoghae.githubenterprise.com, api.octoghae.githubenterprise.com, and codeload.octoghae.githubenterprise.com.

If you use an IP address allow list, you must add your self-hosted runner's IP address to the allow list. For more information, see "Managing allowed IP addresses for your organization."

If you use an IP address allow list for your GitHub organization or enterprise account, you must add your self-hosted runner's IP address to the allow list. For more information, see "Managing allowed IP addresses for your organization."

You can also use self-hosted runners with a proxy server. For more information, see "Using a proxy server with self-hosted runners."

For more information about troubleshooting common network connectivity issues, see "Monitoring and troubleshooting self-hosted runners."

Communication between self-hosted runners and GitHub.com

Self-hosted runners do not need to connect to GitHub.com unless you have enabled automatic access to GitHub.com actions for your enterprise. For more information, see "About using actions in your enterprise."

If you have enabled automatic access to GitHub.com actions, then the self-hosted runner will connect directly to GitHub.com to download actions. You must ensure that the machine has the appropriate network access to communicate with the GitHub URLs listed below.

github.com
api.github.com
codeload.github.com

Note: Some of the domains listed above are configured using CNAME records. Some firewalls might require you to add rules recursively for all CNAME records. Note that the CNAME records might change in the future, and that only the domains listed above will remain constant.

Self-hosted runner security

Untrusted workflows running on your self-hosted runner pose significant security risks for your machine and network environment, especially if your machine persists its environment between jobs. Some of the risks include:

  • Malicious programs running on the machine.
  • Escaping the machine's runner sandbox.
  • Exposing access to the machine's network environment.
  • Persisting unwanted or dangerous data on the machine.

For more information about security hardening for self-hosted runners, see "Security hardening for GitHub Actions."

Further reading