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Committing and reviewing changes to your project in GitHub Desktop

GitHub Desktop tracks all changes to all files as you edit them. You can decide how to group the changes to create meaningful commits.

About commits

編集されたファイルの保存と同様に、コミットは、ブランチにある1つ以上のファイルの変更を記録します。 Gitは、各コミットに次の情報を識別するSHA、またはハッシュと呼ばれる固有のIDを割り当てます。

  • 具体的な変更
  • 変更時間
  • 変更者

コミットするときは、変更を簡潔に説明するコミットメッセージを含める必要があります。 You can also add a co-author on any commits you collaborate on.

GitHub Desktopで作成したコミットがGitHub上の間違ったアカウントに関連づけられているなら、GitHub Desktopを使ってGitの設定中のメールアドレスを更新してください。 For more information, see "Configuring Git for GitHub Desktop."

Repository administrators can enable rulesets for a branch to enforce specific conventions when committing. For example, a ruleset can require a commit to be signed, or for an issue number to be referenced at the start of a commit message. GitHub Desktop will display a warning and prevent committing if a commit does not follow the rulesets. For more information, see "ルールセットについて."

Choosing a branch and making changes

  1. Create a new branch, or select an existing branch by clicking Current Branch on the toolbar and selecting the branch from the list.

    Screenshot of the "Current Branch" dropdown view. Under "Recent Branches", a branch, named "my-feature", is highlighted with an orange outline.

  2. Visual Studio Code などの好みのテキスト エディターを使って、プロジェクトのファイルに必要な変更を行います。

Choosing how to display diffs

You can change the way diffs are displayed in GitHub Desktop to suit your reviewing needs.

To change how you view diffs, in the top-right corner of the diff view, click .

  • To change how the entire diff is displayed, under "Diff display", select Unified or Split. The Unified view shows changes linearly, while the Split view shows old content on the left side and new content on the right side.
  • To hide whitespace changes so you can focus on more substantive changes, select Hide Whitespace Changes.

Screenshot of the diff view of a "README" file. A gear icon is outlined in orange above an expanded dropdown displaying "Whitespace" and "Diff display" settings.

If you need to see more of the file than GitHub Desktop shows by default, you can expand the diff.

  • To see the next few lines above or below the highlighted changes, click the arrow above or below the line numbers.
  • To see the entire file, right-click in the diff view and click Expand Whole File.

Screenshot of the diff view of a "README" file. Over a green "addition" line, in a context menu, the cursor hovers over "Expand Whole File".

Selecting changes to include in a commit

As you make changes to files in your text editor and save them locally, you will also see the changes in GitHub Desktop.

In the "Changes" tab in the left sidebar:

  • The red icon indicates removed files.

  • The yellow icon indicates modified files.

  • The green icon indicates added files.

  • To access stashed changes, click Stashed Changes.

  • すべてのファイルのすべての変更を 1 回のコミットに追加するには、リストの上部にあるチェックボックスをオンにしてください。

    Screenshot of the "Changes" tab. Above the list of changed files, next to the text "3 changed files", a selected checkbox is outlined in orange.

  • 1 つ以上のファイルのすべての変更を 1 回のコミットに追加するには、含めないファイルの隣のチェックボックスをオフにし、コミットに含めたいファイルだけを残してください。 チェックボックスは、ファイルの選択後、Spacebar または Enter キーで切り替えることができます。

Creating a partial commit

If one file contains multiple changes, but you only want some of those changes to be included in a commit, you can create a partial commit. The rest of your changes will remain intact, so that you can make additional modifications and commits. This allows you to make separate, meaningful commits, such as keeping line break changes in a commit separate from code or prose changes.

To exclude changed lines from your commit, click one or more changed lines so the blue disappears. The lines that are still highlighted in blue will be included in the commit.

Screenshot of the diff view of a text file. Next to the text "I don't want to include this line", the background color behind the line numbers is green, not blue.

Discarding changes

If you have uncommitted changes that you don't want to keep, you can discard the changes. This will remove the changes from the files on your computer. You can discard all uncommitted changes in one or more files, or you can discard specific lines you added.

Discarded changes are saved in a dated file in the Trash. You can recover discarded changes until the Trash is emptied.

Discarding changes in one or more files

  1. 変更されたファイルのリスト中で、最後のコミット以降の変更を破棄したいファイルオを選択してください。 複数のファイルを選択するには、shift をクリックして、変更を破棄したいファイルの範囲をクリックしてください。

  2. [Discard Changes] (変更の破棄) または [Discard Selected Changes] (選択された変更の破棄) をクリックして、1 つ以上のファイルに対する変更を破棄するか、 [Discard All Changes] (すべての変更を破棄) をクリックして最後のコミット以降のすべてのファイルに対する変更を破棄してください。

    Screenshot of the "Changes" tab. Two selected files are highlighted in blue. In a context menu, the cursor hovers over "Discard 2 Selected Changes".

  3. 変更を確認するには、[Confirm Discard Changes] (破棄する変更の確認) ウィンドウで影響を受けるファイルを確認し、 [変更の破棄] をクリックします。

Discarding changes in one or more lines

You can discard one or more changed lines that are uncommitted.

Note: Discarding single lines is disabled in a group of changes that adds and removes lines.

To discard one added line, in the list of changed lines, right-click the line number of the line you want to discard, then select Discard Added Line.

Screenshot of the diff view of a file. In a context menu, a cursor hovers over "Discard Added Line", highlighted in blue.

To discard a group of changed lines, right-click the vertical bar to the right of the line numbers for the lines you want to discard, then select Discard added lines.

Screenshot of the diff view of a file. To the right of the line numbers, a narrow, darker blue line is highlighted with an orange outline.

Write a commit message and push your changes

Once you're satisfied with the changes you've chosen to include in your commit, write your commit message and push your changes. If you've collaborated on a commit, you can also attribute a commit to more than one author.

Note: デフォルトでは、GitHub Desktopは作成したタグを関連するコミットと共にリポジトリにプッシュします。 For more information, see "Managing tags in GitHub Desktop."

  1. 変更のリストの下のSummary(サマリー)フィールドに短く分かりやすいコミットメッセージを入力してください。 Description(説明)フィールドに、変更に関するさらに詳しい情報を追加することもできます。

    Screenshot of the "Changes" tab in the sidebar. To the right of a profile picture, a text field containing a commit message is outlined in orange.

  2. Optionally, to attribute a commit to another author, click the add co-authors icon and type the username(s) you want to include.

    Screenshot of the "Changes" tab. In the corner of the "Description" field, a "person with a plus sign" icon for adding a co-author is outlined in orange.

  3. [説明] フィールドの下にある [<ブランチ> にコミット] をクリックします。

  4. If the branch you're trying to commit to is protected, Desktop will warn you.

    • To move your changes, click switch branches.
    • To commit your changes to the protected branch, click Commit to BRANCH.

    For more information about protected branches, see "保護されたブランチについて."

  5. ローカルの変更をリモート リポジトリにプッシュするには、リポジトリ バーの [Push origin] (オリジンへプッシュ) をクリックします。

    リポジトリ バーのスクリーンショット。 [Push origin] (オリジンへプッシュ) というボタンがオレンジ色の枠線で強調表示されています。

  6. If you have a pull request based off the branch you are working on, GitHub Desktop will display the status of the checks that have run for the pull request next to the "Current Branch" section of the repository bar. For more information about checks, see "Viewing and re-running checks in GitHub Desktop."

    If a pull request has not been created for the current branch, GitHub Desktop will give you the option to preview the changes and create one. For more information, see "Creating an issue or pull request from GitHub Desktop."

    Screenshot of the "No local changes" view. A button, labeled "Preview Pull Request", is highlighted with an orange outline.

Further reading