Building and testing Node.js

You can create a continuous integration (CI) workflow to build and test your Node.js project.

注: GitHub 托管的运行器目前在 GitHub Enterprise Server 上不受支持。 您可以在 GitHub 公共路线图 上查看有关未来支持计划的更多信息。

Introduction

This guide shows you how to create a continuous integration (CI) workflow that builds and tests Node.js code. If your CI tests pass, you may want to deploy your code or publish a package.

Prerequisites

We recommend that you have a basic understanding of Node.js, YAML, workflow configuration options, and how to create a workflow file. For more information, see:

在 GitHub Enterprise Server 上使用自托管的运行器

在包含自托管运行器的 GitHub Enterprise Server 上使用设置操作(例如 actions/setup-LANGUAGE)时,您可能需要在没有连接互联网的运行器上设置工具缓存。 更多信息请参阅“在没有互联网连接的自托管运行器上设置工具缓存”。

Starting with the Node.js workflow template

GitHub provides a Node.js workflow template that will work for most Node.js projects. This guide includes npm and Yarn examples that you can use to customize the template. For more information, see the Node.js workflow template.

To get started quickly, add the template to the .github/workflows directory of your repository. The workflow shown below assumes that the default branch for your repository is main.

YAML
name: Node.js CI

on:
  push:
    branches: [ main ]
  pull_request:
    branches: [ main ]

jobs:
  build:

    runs-on: ubuntu-latest

    strategy:
      matrix:
        node-version: [10.x, 12.x, 14.x, 15.x]

    steps:
      - uses: actions/checkout@v2
      - name: Use Node.js ${{ matrix.node-version }}
        uses: actions/setup-node@v2
        with:
          node-version: ${{ matrix.node-version }}
      - run: npm ci
      - run: npm run build --if-present
      - run: npm test

在其他操作系统上运行

初学者工作流程模板使用 GitHub 托管的 ubuntu-latest 运行器将作业配置为在 Linux 上运行。 您可以更改 runs-on 键,让您的作业在其他操作系统上运行。 例如,您可以使用 GitHub 托管的 Windows 运行器。

runs-on: windows-latest

或者,您可以在 GitHub 托管的 macOS 运行器上运行。

runs-on: macos-latest

您还可以在 Docker 容器中运行作业,或者提供在自己的基础架构上运行的自托管运行器。 更多信息请参阅“GitHub Actions 的工作流程语法”。

Specifying the Node.js version

The easiest way to specify a Node.js version is by using the setup-node action provided by GitHub. For more information see, setup-node.

The setup-node action takes a Node.js version as an input and configures that version on the runner. The setup-node action finds a specific version of Node.js from the tools cache on each runner and adds the necessary binaries to PATH, which persists for the rest of the job. Using the setup-node action is the recommended way of using Node.js with GitHub Actions because it ensures consistent behavior across different runners and different versions of Node.js. If you are using a self-hosted runner, you must install Node.js and add it to PATH.

The template includes a matrix strategy that builds and tests your code with four Node.js versions: 10.x, 12.x, 14.x, and 15.x. The 'x' is a wildcard character that matches the latest minor and patch release available for a version. Each version of Node.js specified in the node-version array creates a job that runs the same steps.

Each job can access the value defined in the matrix node-version array using the matrix context. The setup-node action uses the context as the node-version input. The setup-node action configures each job with a different Node.js version before building and testing code. For more information about matrix strategies and contexts, see "Workflow syntax for GitHub Actions" and "Contexts."

YAML
strategy:
  matrix:
    node-version: [10.x, 12.x, 14.x, 15.x]

steps:
- uses: actions/checkout@v2
- name: Use Node.js ${{ matrix.node-version }}
  uses: actions/setup-node@v2
  with:
    node-version: ${{ matrix.node-version }}

Alternatively, you can build and test with exact Node.js versions.

YAML
strategy:
  matrix:
    node-version: [8.16.2, 10.17.0]

Or, you can build and test using a single version of Node.js too.

YAML
name: Node.js CI

on: [push]

jobs:
  build:

    runs-on: ubuntu-latest

    steps:
      - uses: actions/checkout@v2
      - name: Use Node.js
        uses: actions/setup-node@v2
        with:
          node-version: '12.x'
      - run: npm ci
      - run: npm run build --if-present
      - run: npm test

If you don't specify a Node.js version, GitHub uses the environment's default Node.js version. For more information, see "Specifications for GitHub-hosted runners".

Installing dependencies

GitHub-hosted runners have npm and Yarn dependency managers installed. You can use npm and Yarn to install dependencies in your workflow before building and testing your code. The Windows and Linux GitHub-hosted runners also have Grunt, Gulp, and Bower installed.

When using GitHub-hosted runners, you can also cache dependencies to speed up your workflow. For more information, see "Caching dependencies to speed up workflows."

Example using npm

This example installs the dependencies defined in the package.json file. For more information, see npm install.

YAML
steps:
- uses: actions/checkout@v2
- name: Use Node.js
  uses: actions/setup-node@v2
  with:
    node-version: '12.x'
- name: Install dependencies
  run: npm install

Using npm ci installs the versions in the package-lock.json or npm-shrinkwrap.json file and prevents updates to the lock file. Using npm ci is generally faster than running npm install. For more information, see npm ci and "Introducing npm ci for faster, more reliable builds."

YAML
steps:
- uses: actions/checkout@v2
- name: Use Node.js
  uses: actions/setup-node@v2
  with:
    node-version: '12.x'
- name: Install dependencies
  run: npm ci

Example using Yarn

This example installs the dependencies defined in the package.json file. For more information, see yarn install.

YAML
steps:
- uses: actions/checkout@v2
- name: Use Node.js
  uses: actions/setup-node@v2
  with:
    node-version: '12.x'
- name: Install dependencies
  run: yarn

Alternatively, you can pass --frozen-lockfile to install the versions in the yarn.lock file and prevent updates to the yarn.lock file.

YAML
steps:
- uses: actions/checkout@v2
- name: Use Node.js
  uses: actions/setup-node@v2
  with:
    node-version: '12.x'
- name: Install dependencies
  run: yarn --frozen-lockfile

Example using a private registry and creating the .npmrc file

您可以使用 setup-node 操作在运行器上创建本地 .npmrc 文件,以配置默认注册表和范围。 setup-node 操作也接受身份验证令牌作为输入,用于访问私人注册表或发布节点包。 更多信息请参阅 setup-node

To authenticate to your private registry, you'll need to store your npm authentication token as a secret. For example, create a repository secret called NPM_TOKEN. For more information, see "Creating and using encrypted secrets."

In the example below, the secret NPM_TOKEN stores the npm authentication token. The setup-node action configures the .npmrc file to read the npm authentication token from the NODE_AUTH_TOKEN environment variable. When using the setup-node action to create an .npmrc file, you must set the NODE_AUTH_TOKEN environment variable with the secret that contains your npm authentication token.

Before installing dependencies, use the setup-node action to create the .npmrc file. The action has two input parameters. The node-version parameter sets the Node.js version, and the registry-url parameter sets the default registry. If your package registry uses scopes, you must use the scope parameter. For more information, see npm-scope.

YAML
steps:
- uses: actions/checkout@v2
- name: Use Node.js
  uses: actions/setup-node@v2
  with:
    always-auth: true
    node-version: '12.x'
    registry-url: https://registry.npmjs.org
    scope: '@octocat'
- name: Install dependencies
  run: npm ci
  env:
    NODE_AUTH_TOKEN: ${{secrets.NPM_TOKEN}}

The example above creates an .npmrc file with the following contents:

//registry.npmjs.org/:_authToken=${NODE_AUTH_TOKEN}
@octocat:registry=https://registry.npmjs.org/
always-auth=true

Example caching dependencies

When using GitHub-hosted runners, you can cache and restore the dependencies using the setup-node action.

The following example caches dependencies for npm.

YAML
steps:
- uses: actions/checkout@v2
- uses: actions/setup-node@v2
  with:
    node-version: '14'
    cache: 'npm'
- run: npm install
- run: npm test

The following example caches dependencies for Yarn.

YAML
steps:
- uses: actions/checkout@v2
- uses: actions/setup-node@v2
  with:
    node-version: '14'
    cache: 'yarn'
- run: yarn
- run: yarn test

The following example caches dependencies for pnpm (v6.10+).

YAML
# 此工作流使用未经 GitHub 认证的操作。
# 它们由第三方提供,并受
# 单独的服务条款、隐私政策和支持
# 文档管理。

# NOTE: pnpm caching support requires pnpm version >= 6.10.0

steps:
- uses: actions/checkout@v2
- uses: pnpm/action-setup@646cdf48217256a3d0b80361c5a50727664284f2
  with:
    version: 6.10.0
- uses: actions/setup-node@v2
  with:
    node-version: '14'
    cache: 'pnpm'
- run: pnpm install
- run: pnpm test

If you have a custom requirement or need finer controls for caching, you can use the cache action. For more information, see "Caching dependencies to speed up workflows".

Building and testing your code

You can use the same commands that you use locally to build and test your code. For example, if you run npm run build to run build steps defined in your package.json file and npm test to run your test suite, you would add those commands in your workflow file.

YAML
steps:
- uses: actions/checkout@v2
- name: Use Node.js
  uses: actions/setup-node@v2
  with:
    node-version: '12.x'
- run: npm install
- run: npm run build --if-present
- run: npm test

Packaging workflow data as artifacts

You can save artifacts from your build and test steps to view after a job completes. For example, you may need to save log files, core dumps, test results, or screenshots. For more information, see "Persisting workflow data using artifacts."

Publishing to package registries

You can configure your workflow to publish your Node.js package to a package registry after your CI tests pass. For more information about publishing to npm and GitHub Packages, see "Publishing Node.js packages."

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