You can enforce certain workflows or requirements before a collaborator can push changes to a branch in your repository, including merging a pull request into the branch, by creating a branch protection rule.
By default, each branch protection rule disables force pushes to the matching branches and prevents the matching branches from being deleted. You can optionally disable these restrictions and enable additional branch protection settings.
By default, the restrictions of a branch protection rule don't apply to people with admin permissions to the repository or custom roles with the "bypass branch protections" permission. You can optionally apply the restrictions to administrators and roles with the "bypass branch protections" permission, too. For more information, see "Managing custom repository roles for an organization".
Você pode criar uma regra de proteção de branch em um repositório para um branch específico, para todos os branches ou para qualquer branch que corresponda a um padrão de nome especificado com a sintaxe
fnmatch. Por exemplo, para proteger os branches que contêm a palavra
release, você pode criar uma regra de branch para
*release*. For more information about branch name patterns, see "Managing a branch protection rule."
Você pode configurar um pull request para fazer merge automaticamente quando todos os requisitos de merge forem atendidos. Para obter mais informações, confira "Mesclar uma solicitação de pull automaticamente".
For each branch protection rule, you can choose to enable or disable the following settings.
For more information on how to set up branch protection, see "Managing a branch protection rule."
Os administradores do repositório podem exigir que todos os pull requests recebam um número específico de revisões antes que alguém faça o merge do pull request em um branch protegido. Você pode exigir a aprovação de revisões de pessoas com permissões de gravação no repositório ou de um proprietário de código designado.
If you enable required reviews, collaborators can only push changes to a protected branch via a pull request that is approved by the required number of reviewers with write permissions.
If a person with admin permissions chooses the Request changes option in a review, then that person must approve the pull request before the pull request can be merged. If a reviewer who requests changes on a pull request isn't available, anyone with write permissions for the repository can dismiss the blocking review.
Mesmo depois de todos os revisores necessários terem aprovado um pull request, os colaboradores não poderão fazer o merge do pull request se houver outros pull requests abertos que tenham um branch de cabeçalho apontando para o mesmo commit com revisões pendentes ou rejeitadas. Alguém com permissões de gravação deve aprovar ou ignorar a revisão de bloqueio nos outros pull requests primeiro.
If a collaborator attempts to merge a pull request with pending or rejected reviews into the protected branch, the collaborator will receive an error message.
remote: error: GH006: Protected branch update failed for refs/heads/main. remote: error: Changes have been requested.
Optionally, you can choose to dismiss stale pull request approvals when commits are pushed. If anyone pushes a commit that modifies code to an approved pull request, the approval will be dismissed, and the pull request cannot be merged. This doesn't apply if the collaborator pushes commits that don't modify code, like merging the base branch into the pull request's branch. For information about the base branch, see "About pull requests."
Optionally, you can restrict the ability to dismiss pull request reviews to specific people or teams. For more information, see "Dismissing a pull request review."
Optionally, you can choose to require reviews from code owners. If you do, any pull request that affects code with a code owner must be approved by that code owner before the pull request can be merged into the protected branch.
Required status checks ensure that all required CI tests are passing before collaborators can make changes to a protected branch. Required status checks can be checks or statuses. For more information, see "About status checks."
Before you can enable required status checks, you must configure the repository to use the status API. For more information, see "Repositories" in the REST documentation.
After enabling required status checks, all required status checks must pass before collaborators can merge changes into the protected branch. After all required status checks pass, any commits must either be pushed to another branch and then merged or pushed directly to the protected branch.
Any person or integration with write permissions to a repository can set the state of any status check in the repository, but in some cases you may only want to accept a status check from a specific GitHub App. When you add a required status check, you can select an app that has recently set this check as the expected source of status updates. If the status is set by any other person or integration, merging won't be allowed. If you select "any source", you can still manually verify the author of each status, listed in the merge box.
You can set up required status checks to either be "loose" or "strict." The type of required status check you choose determines whether your branch is required to be up to date with the base branch before merging.
|Type of required status check||Setting||Merge requirements||Considerations|
|Strict||The Require branches to be up to date before merging checkbox is checked.||The branch must be up to date with the base branch before merging.||This is the default behavior for required status checks. More builds may be required, as you'll need to bring the head branch up to date after other collaborators merge pull requests to the protected base branch.|
|Loose||The Require branches to be up to date before merging checkbox is not checked.||The branch does not have to be up to date with the base branch before merging.||You'll have fewer required builds, as you won't need to bring the head branch up to date after other collaborators merge pull requests. Status checks may fail after you merge your branch if there are incompatible changes with the base branch.|
|Disabled||The Require status checks to pass before merging checkbox is not checked.||The branch has no merge restrictions.||If required status checks aren't enabled, collaborators can merge the branch at any time, regardless of whether it is up to date with the base branch. This increases the possibility of incompatible changes.|
For troubleshooting information, see "Troubleshooting required status checks."
Requires all comments on the pull request to be resolved before it can be merged to a protected branch. This ensures that all comments are addressed or acknowledged before merge.
When you enable required commit signing on a branch, contributors and bots can only push commits that have been signed and verified to the branch. For more information, see "About commit signature verification."
- If you have enabled vigilant mode, which indicates that your commits will always be signed, any commits that GitHub identifies as "Partially verified" are permitted on branches that require signed commits. For more information about vigilant mode, see "Displaying verification statuses for all of your commits."
- If a collaborator pushes an unsigned commit to a branch that requires commit signatures, the collaborator will need to rebase the commit to include a verified signature, then force push the rewritten commit to the branch.
You can always push local commits to the branch if the commits are signed and verified. You can also merge signed and verified commits into the branch using a pull request on GitHub. However, you cannot squash and merge a pull request into the branch on GitHub unless you are the author of the pull request. You can squash and merge pull requests locally. For more information, see "Checking out pull requests locally."
For more information about merge methods, see "About merge methods on GitHub."
Enforcing a linear commit history prevents collaborators from pushing merge commits to the branch. This means that any pull requests merged into the protected branch must use a squash merge or a rebase merge. A strictly linear commit history can help teams reverse changes more easily. For more information about merge methods, see "About pull request merges."
Before you can require a linear commit history, your repository must allow squash merging or rebase merging. For more information, see "Configuring pull request merges."
Observação: atualmente, o recurso de fila de mesclagem da solicitação de pull está em versão beta pública limitada e sujeito a alterações.
Uma fila de mesclagem pode aumentar a velocidade na qual as solicitações de pull são mescladas em um branch de destino ocupado, garantindo que todas as verificações de proteção de branch obrigatórias sejam aprovadas.
Depois que uma solicitação de pull tiver sido aprovada por todas as verificações de proteção de branch obrigatórias, um usuário com acesso de gravação no repositório poderá adicionar essa solicitação de pull a uma fila de mesclagem.
Uma fila de mesclagem poderá usar o GitHub Actions. Para obter mais informações, confira "GitHub Actions".
O GitHub mescla a solicitação de pull de acordo com a estratégia de mesclagem configurada na proteção de branch após a aprovação de todas as verificações de CI obrigatórias.
Para obter informações sobre a fila de mesclagem, confira "Como gerenciar uma fila de mesclagem".
You can require that changes are successfully deployed to specific environments before a branch can be merged. For example, you can use this rule to ensure that changes are successfully deployed to a staging environment before the changes merge to your default branch.
By default, the restrictions of a branch protection rule do not apply to people with admin permissions to the repository or custom roles with the "bypass branch protections" permission in a repository.
You can enable this setting to apply the restrictions to admins and roles with the "bypass branch protections" permission, too. For more information, see "Managing custom repository roles for an organization".
You can enable branch restrictions if your repository is owned by an organization using GitHub Team or GitHub Enterprise Cloud.
When you enable branch restrictions, only users, teams, or apps that have been given permission can push to the protected branch. You can view and edit the users, teams, or apps with push access to a protected branch in the protected branch's settings. When status checks are required, the people, teams, and apps that have permission to push to a protected branch will still be prevented from merging into the branch when the required checks fail. People, teams, and apps that have permission to push to a protected branch will still need to create a pull request when pull requests are required.
Optionally, you can apply the same restrictions to the creation of branches that match the rule. For example, if you create a rule that only allows a certain team to push to any branches that contain the word
release, only members of that team would be able to create a new branch that contains the word
You can only give push access to a protected branch, or give permission to create a matching branch, to users, teams, or installed GitHub Apps with write access to a repository. People and apps with admin permissions to a repository are always able to push to a protected branch or create a matching branch.
By default, GitHub blocks force pushes on all protected branches. When you enable force pushes to a protected branch, you can choose one of two groups who can force push:
- Allow everyone with at least write permissions to the repository to force push to the branch, including those with admin permissions.
- Allow only specific people or teams to force push to the branch.
If someone force pushes to a branch, the force push may overwrite commits that other collaborators based their work on. People may have merge conflicts or corrupted pull requests.
Enabling force pushes will not override any other branch protection rules. For example, if a branch requires a linear commit history, you cannot force push merge commits to that branch.
By default, you cannot delete a protected branch. When you enable deletion of a protected branch, anyone with at least write permissions to the repository can delete the branch.