Fork a repo

A fork is a copy of a repository. Forking a repository allows you to freely experiment with changes without affecting the original project.

About forks

Most commonly, forks are used to either propose changes to someone else's project or to use someone else's project as a starting point for your own idea. You can fork a repository to create a copy of the repository and make changes without affecting the upstream repository. For more information, see "Working with forks."

Propose changes to someone else's project

For example, you can use forks to propose changes related to fixing a bug. Rather than logging an issue for a bug you've found, you can:

  • Fork the repository.
  • Make the fix.
  • Submit a pull request to the project owner.

Use someone else's project as a starting point for your own idea.

Open source software is based on the idea that by sharing code, we can make better, more reliable software. For more information, see the "About the Open Source Initiative" on the Open Source Initiative.

For more information about applying open source principles to your organization's development work on GitHub, see GitHub's white paper "An introduction to innersource."

When creating your public repository from a fork of someone's project, make sure to include a license file that determines how you want your project to be shared with others. For more information, see "Choose an open source license" at choosealicense.com.

为深入了解开源,特别是如何创建和发展开源项目,我们制作了开源指南,它将推荐关于创建和维护开源项目仓库的最佳实践,帮助您培养一个健康发展的开源社区。 您还可以免费学习关于维护开源社区的 GitHub Learning Lab 课程。

Prerequisties

If you haven't yet, you should first set up Git. Don't forget to set up authentication to GitHub from Git as well.

Forking a repository

You might fork a project to propose changes to the upstream, or original, repository. In this case, it's good practice to regularly sync your fork with the upstream repository. To do this, you'll need to use Git on the command line. You can practice setting the upstream repository using the same octocat/Spoon-Knife repository you just forked.

  1. On GitHub, navigate to the octocat/Spoon-Knife repository.
  2. In the top-right corner of the page, click Fork. Fork button

To download or find more information about GitHub CLI, see the GitHub CLI feature page.

To create a fork of a repository, use the gh repo fork subcommand.

gh repo fork repository

To create the fork in an organization, use the --org flag.

gh repo fork repository --org "octo-org"

Cloning your forked repository

Right now, you have a fork of the Spoon-Knife repository, but you don't have the files in that repository locally your computer.

  1. On GitHub, navigate to your fork of the Spoon-Knife repository.

  2. 在文件列表上方,单击 ****Code(代码)。 "代码"按钮

  3. 要使用 HTTPS 克隆仓库,请在“Clone with HTTPS(使用 HTTPS 克隆)”下单击 . 要使用 SSH 密钥克隆仓库,包括由组织的 SSH 证书颁发机构颁发的证书,请单击 Use SSH(使用 SSH),然后单击 。 要使用 GitHub CLI 克隆仓库,请单击使用 GitHub CLI,然后单击 用于复制 URL 以克隆仓库的剪贴板图标

    用于复制 URL 以使用 GitHub CLI 克隆仓库的剪贴板图标

  4. 打开 Terminal(终端)Terminal(终端)Git Bash

  5. 将当前的工作目录更改为您想要存储克隆目录的位置。

  6. Type git clone, and then paste the URL you copied earlier. It will look like this, with your GitHub username instead of YOUR-USERNAME:

    $ git clone https://github.com/YOUR-USERNAME/Spoon-Knife
  7. Press Enter. Your local clone will be created.

    $ git clone https://github.com/YOUR-USERNAME/Spoon-Knife
    > Cloning into `Spoon-Knife`...
    > remote: Counting objects: 10, done.
    > remote: Compressing objects: 100% (8/8), done.
    > remove: Total 10 (delta 1), reused 10 (delta 1)
    > Unpacking objects: 100% (10/10), done.

To download or find more information about GitHub CLI, see the GitHub CLI feature page.

To create a clone of your fork, use the --clone flag.

gh repo fork repository --clone=true
  1. File(文件)菜单中,单击 Clone Repository(克隆仓库)

    Mac 应用程序中的克隆菜单选项

    Windows 应用程序中的克隆菜单选项

  2. 单击与要克隆的仓库位置对应的选项卡。 您也可以单击 URL 手动输入仓库位置。

    克隆仓库菜单中的 Location(位置)选项卡

    克隆仓库菜单中的 Location(位置)选项卡

  3. 从列表中选择要克隆的仓库。

    克隆仓库列表

    克隆仓库列表

  4. 单击 Choose...(选择...)并找到要克隆仓库的本地路径。

    选择按钮

    选择按钮

  5. 单击 Clone(克隆)

    克隆按钮

    克隆按钮

Configuring Git to sync your fork with the original repository

When you fork a project in order to propose changes to the original repository, you can configure Git to pull changes from the original, or upstream, repository into the local clone of your fork.

  1. On GitHub, navigate to the octocat/Spoon-Knife repository.

  2. 在文件列表上方,单击 ****Code(代码)。 "代码"按钮

  3. 要使用 HTTPS 克隆仓库,请在“Clone with HTTPS(使用 HTTPS 克隆)”下单击 . 要使用 SSH 密钥克隆仓库,包括由组织的 SSH 证书颁发机构颁发的证书,请单击 Use SSH(使用 SSH),然后单击 。 要使用 GitHub CLI 克隆仓库,请单击使用 GitHub CLI,然后单击 用于复制 URL 以克隆仓库的剪贴板图标

    用于复制 URL 以使用 GitHub CLI 克隆仓库的剪贴板图标

  4. 打开 Terminal(终端)Terminal(终端)Git Bash

  5. Change directories to the location of the fork you cloned.

    • To go to your home directory, type just cd with no other text.
    • To list the files and folders in your current directory, type ls.
    • To go into one of your listed directories, type cd your_listed_directory.
    • To go up one directory, type cd ...
  6. Type git remote -v and press Enter. You'll see the current configured remote repository for your fork.

    $ git remote -v
    > origin  https://github.com/YOUR_USERNAME/YOUR_FORK.git (fetch)
    > origin  https://github.com/YOUR_USERNAME/YOUR_FORK.git (push)
  7. Type git remote add upstream, and then paste the URL you copied in Step 2 and press Enter. It will look like this:

    $ git remote add upstream https://github.com/octocat/Spoon-Knife.git
  8. To verify the new upstream repository you've specified for your fork, type git remote -v again. You should see the URL for your fork as origin, and the URL for the original repository as upstream.

    $ git remote -v
    > origin    https://github.com/YOUR_USERNAME/YOUR_FORK.git (fetch)
    > origin    https://github.com/YOUR_USERNAME/YOUR_FORK.git (push)
    > upstream  https://github.com/ORIGINAL_OWNER/ORIGINAL_REPOSITORY.git (fetch)
    > upstream  https://github.com/ORIGINAL_OWNER/ORIGINAL_REPOSITORY.git (push)

Now, you can keep your fork synced with the upstream repository with a few Git commands. For more information, see "Syncing a fork."

To download or find more information about GitHub CLI, see the GitHub CLI feature page.

To configure a remote repository for the forked repository, use the --remote flag.

gh repo fork repository --remote=true

To specify the remote repository's name, use the --remote-name flag.

gh repo fork repository --remote-name "main-remote-repo"

Next steps

You can make any changes to a fork, including:

  • Creating branches: Branches allow you to build new features or test out ideas without putting your main project at risk.
  • Opening pull requests: If you are hoping to contribute back to the original repository, you can send a request to the original author to pull your fork into their repository by submitting a pull request.

Find another repository to fork

Fork a repository to start contributing to a project. 您可以将仓库复刻到您的用户帐户或具有仓库创建权限的任何组织。 更多信息请参阅“组织的权限级别”。

如果您可以访问私有仓库且所有者允许复刻,则您可以将该仓库复刻到您的用户帐户或者 GitHub Team 上您具有仓库创建权限的任何组织。

You can browse Explore to find projects and start contributing to open source repositories. For more information, see "Finding ways to contribute to open source on GitHub."

Celebrate

You have now forked a repository, practiced cloning your fork, and configured an upstream repository. For more information about cloning the fork and syncing the changes in a forked repository from your computer see "Set up Git."

You can also create a new repository where you can put all your projects and share the code on GitHub. For more information see, "Create a repository."

Each repository in GitHub is owned by a person or an organization. You can interact with the people, repositories, and organizations by connecting and following them on GitHub. For more information see "Be social."

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