A self-hosted runner is a system that you deploy and manage to execute jobs from GitHub Actions on GitHub AE. For more information about GitHub Actions, see "Understanding GitHub Actions" and "About GitHub Actions for enterprises."
With self-hosted runners, you can create custom hardware configurations that meet your needs with processing power or memory to run larger jobs, install software available on your local network, and choose an operating system. Self-hosted runners can be physical, virtual, in a container, on-premises, or in a cloud.
You can add self-hosted runners at various levels in the management hierarchy:
- Repository-level runners are dedicated to a single repository.
- Organization-level runners can process jobs for multiple repositories in an organization.
- Enterprise-level runners can be assigned to multiple organizations in an enterprise account.
Your runner machine connects to GitHub AE using the GitHub Actions self-hosted runner application. GitHub Actions 运行器应用程序是开源的。 您可以参与 runner 仓库并在其中提交议题。 When a new version is released, the runner application automatically updates itself when a job is assigned to the runner, or within a week of release if the runner hasn't been assigned any jobs.
A self-hosted runner is automatically removed from GitHub AE if it has not connected to GitHub Actions for more than 30 days.
Self-hosted runners are a highly configurable way to run workflows in your own custom environment. Self-hosted runners:
- Receive automatic updates for the self-hosted runner application only. You are responsible for updating the operating system and all other software.
- Can use cloud services or local machines that you already pay for.
- Are customizable to your hardware, operating system, software, and security requirements.
- Don't need to have a clean instance for every job execution.
- Are free to use with GitHub Actions, but you are responsible for the cost of maintaining your runner machines.
- Can be organized into groups to restrict access to specific organizations and repositories. For more information, see "Managing access to self-hosted runners using groups."
You can use any machine as a self-hosted runner as long at it meets these requirements:
- You can install and run the self-hosted runner application on the machine. For more information, see "Supported architectures and operating systems for self-hosted runners."
- The machine can communicate with GitHub Actions. For more information, see "Communication between self-hosted runners and GitHub AE."
- The machine has enough hardware resources for the type of workflows you plan to run. The self-hosted runner application itself only requires minimal resources.
- If you want to run workflows that use Docker container actions or service containers, you must use a Linux machine and Docker must be installed.
You can automatically increase or decrease the number of self-hosted runners in your environment in response to the webhook events you receive. For more information, see "Autoscaling with self-hosted runners."
There are some limits on GitHub Actions usage when using self-hosted runners. These limits are subject to change.
- Workflow run time - Each workflow run is limited to 72 hours. If a workflow run reaches this limit, the workflow run is cancelled.
- Job queue time - Each job for self-hosted runners can be queued for a maximum of 24 hours. If a self-hosted runner does not start executing the job within this limit, the job is terminated and fails to complete.
- API 请求 - 在一个仓库的所有操作中，一个小时内最多可执行 1000 个 API 请求。 如果超出，额外的 API 调用将失败，这可能导致作业失败。
- Job matrix - 作业矩阵在每次工作流程运行时最多可生成 256 个作业。 This limit applies to both GitHub AE-hosted and self-hosted runners.
- 工作流程运行队列 - 每个仓库在 10 秒的间隔内可排队的工作流程运行不超过 500 个。 如果工作流程运行达到此限制，该工作流程运行将会终止而无法完成。
如果 GitHub Actions 服务暂时不可用，则在触发后 30 分钟内没有排队时，运行的工作流程运行将被丢弃。 例如，如果触发了一个工作流程，而 GitHub Actions 服务在 31 分钟或更长时间内不可用，则该工作流程将不会被处理。
The following operating systems are supported for the self-hosted runner application.
- Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 or later
- CentOS 7 or later
- Oracle Linux 7
- Fedora 29 or later
- Debian 9 or later
- Ubuntu 16.04 or later
- Linux Mint 18 or later
- openSUSE 15 or later
- SUSE Enterprise Linux (SLES) 12 SP2 or later
- Windows 7 64-bit
- Windows 8.1 64-bit
- Windows 10 64-bit
- Windows Server 2012 R2 64-bit
- Windows Server 2019 64-bit
- macOS 10.13 (High Sierra) or later
The following processor architectures are supported for the self-hosted runner application.
x64- Linux, macOS, Windows.
ARM64- Linux only.
ARM32- Linux only.
The self-hosted runner connects to GitHub AE to receive job assignments and to download new versions of the runner application. The self-hosted runner uses an HTTPS long poll that opens a connection to GitHub AE for 50 seconds, and if no response is received, it then times out and creates a new long poll. The application must be running on the machine to accept and run GitHub Actions jobs.
自托管运行器与 GitHub AE 之间的连接通过HTTPS（端口 443）。
Only an outbound connection from the runner to 您的企业 is required. There is no need for an inbound connection from 您的企业 to the runner.
You must ensure that the self-hosted runner has appropriate network access to communicate with your GitHub AE URL and its subdomains. For example, if your subdomain for GitHub AE is
octoghae, then you will need to allow the self-hosted runner to access
If you use an IP address allow list, you must add your self-hosted runner's IP address to the allow list. For more information, see "Managing allowed IP addresses for your organization."
If you use an IP address allow list for your GitHub organization or enterprise account, you must add your self-hosted runner's IP address to the allow list. For more information, see "Managing allowed IP addresses for your organization."
You can also use self-hosted runners with a proxy server. For more information, see "Using a proxy server with self-hosted runners."
For more information about troubleshooting common network connectivity issues, see "Monitoring and troubleshooting self-hosted runners."
Self-hosted runners do not need to connect to GitHub.com unless you have enabled automatic access to GitHub.com actions for 您的企业. For more information, see "About using actions in your enterprise."
If you have enabled automatic access to GitHub.com actions, then the self-hosted runner will connect directly to GitHub.com to download actions. You must ensure that the machine has the appropriate network access to communicate with the GitHub URLs listed below.
github.com api.github.com codeload.github.com
Note: Some of the domains listed above are configured using
CNAME records. Some firewalls might require you to add rules recursively for all
CNAME records. Note that the
CNAME records might change in the future, and that only the domains listed above will remain constant.
Untrusted workflows running on your self-hosted runner pose significant security risks for your machine and network environment, especially if your machine persists its environment between jobs. Some of the risks include:
- Malicious programs running on the machine.
- Escaping the machine's runner sandbox.
- Exposing access to the machine's network environment.
- Persisting unwanted or dangerous data on the machine.
For more information about security hardening for self-hosted runners, see "Security hardening for GitHub Actions."