Benefits of migrating from OAuth Apps to GitHub Apps
GitHub Apps are the recommended way to integrate with GitHub. GitHub Apps offer many advantages over OAuth Apps, including:
- enhanced security features, like fine-grained permissions, choice over repository access, and short lived tokens
- the ability to act independently of or on behalf of a user
- scalable rate limits
- built-in webhooks
For more information, see "Informationen zum Erstellen von GitHub-Apps."
Converting an OAuth App to a GitHub App
The following steps provide an overview of how to migrate from an OAuth App to a GitHub App. The specific steps depend on your app.
1. Review your OAuth App
Re-familiarize yourself with the code for your OAuth App. The API requests that your OAuth App makes will help you decide what permissions to select for your GitHub App.
Additionally, there are a few REST API endpoints that are not available for OAuth Apps. Verify that any REST endpoints that you use are available for GitHub Apps by reviewing "Für GitHub-Apps verfügbare Endpunkte."
2. Register a GitHub App
Register a new GitHub App. For more information, see "Erstellen einer GitHub-App."
Compared to an OAuth App, you have more control over GitHub App settings. Some key additions are:
Unlike an OAuth App, which always acts on behalf of a user, you can make your GitHub App take actions as itself or on behalf of a user. If you do not want your new GitHub App to take actions on behalf of a user, you can skip the "Identifying and authorizing users" settings. For more information, see "Informationen zur Authentifizierung mit einer GitHub-App."
You can use webhooks to notify your GitHub App when specific events occur. Unlike webhooks for OAuth Apps, which you must configure via the API for each repository or organization, webhooks are built into GitHub Apps. When you register your GitHub App, you can select the webhook events that you want to receive. Additionally, if your OAuth App currently uses polling to determine if an event had occurred, consider subscribing to webhooks instead to help your GitHub App stay within the rate limit. For more information, see "Verwenden von Webhooks mit GitHub-Apps."
With an OAuth App, you request scopes when a user authorizes your app. With a GitHub App, you specify permissions in the app settings. These permissions are more granular than scopes and enable you to only select the permissions that your app needs. Additionally, these permissions are mapped to REST API endpoints and webhook events, so you can easily determine what permissions your GitHub App needs in order to access a specific REST API endpoint or subscribe to a specific webhook. Permissions are not currently documented for GraphQL requests. For more information, see "Auswählen von Berechtigungen für eine GitHub-App."
3. Modify the code for your app
Once you have registered a GitHub App, adapt the code from your old OAuth App to work with your new GitHub App.
You will need to update your app's code to handle API authentication for your GitHub App. A GitHub App can authenticate in three ways:
- As the app itself, in order to get or modify details about the app or to create an installation access token. For more information, see "Authentifizieren als GitHub-App."
- As an app installation, in order to take actions on behalf of itself. For more information, see "Authentifizierung als GitHub-App-Installation."
- On behalf of a user, in order to attribute actions to a user. For more information, see "Authentifizieren mit einer GitHub-App im Namen von Benutzer*innen."
If you are using GitHub's official Octokit.js library, you can use the built-in
Review rate limits
Review the differences in rate limits between OAuth Apps and GitHub Apps. GitHub Apps use sliding rules for rate limits, which can increase based on the number of repositories and number of users in the organization. For more information, see "Rate limits for GitHub Apps (Ratenbegrenzungen für GitHub-Apps)."
If possible, consider using conditional requests and subscribing to webhooks instead of polling to help you stay within rate limits. For more information about conditional requests, see "Ressourcen in der REST-API." For more information about using webhooks with your GitHub App, see "Verwenden von Webhooks mit GitHub-Apps" and "Building a GitHub App that responds to webhook events."
Test your code
Test your new GitHub App to make sure that your code works as expected.
4. Publicize your new GitHub App
If you want other accounts to be able to use your new GitHub App, make sure that your app is public. If you want to make your GitHub App more discoverable, list your app in GitHub Marketplace. For more information, see "Informationen zu GitHub Marketplace" and "Öffentlich- oder Privatmachen einer GitHub-App."
5. Instruct your users to migrate
Once your new GitHub App is ready, instruct users of your old OAuth App to migrate to your new GitHub App. There is not a way to automatically migrate your users. Each user must install and/or authorize your GitHub App on their own.
As the app owner, you should include calls to action to encourage your users to install/authorize the new GitHub App and revoke authorization for the old OAuth App. You should also update any documentation or user interface elements.
Prompt users to install your GitHub App
If you want your GitHub App to make API requests on behalf of itself or access organization or repository resources, the user must install your GitHub App. When a user installs a GitHub App on their account or organization, they choose which repositories the app can access, and they grant the app the organization and repository permissions that it requested.
To help your users install your GitHub App, you can add a link to your app's webpage that users can click to install the GitHub App. The format of the install URL is
YOUR_APP_NAME with the sluggified name of your GitHub App, which you can find in the "Public link" field on the settings page for your GitHub App.
To pre-select any repositories your OAuth App had access to, you can append
/permissions and query parameters to the install URL. This helps users grant your GitHub App access to repositories that your OAuth App already has access to. The query parameters are:
suggested_target_id: The ID of the user or organization that is installing your GitHub App. This parameter is required.
repository_ids: The repository IDs to select for the installation. If omitted, all repositories are selected. The maximum number of repositories that can be pre-selected is 100. To get a list of repositories that your OAuth App has access to, use the List repositories for the authenticated user and List organization repositories endpoints.
For more information about installing GitHub Apps, see "Installieren einer GitHub-App aus dem GitHub Marketplace für dein persönliches Konto" and "Installieren einer GitHub-App aus dem GitHub Marketplace für deine Organisationen."
Prompt users to authorize your app
If you want your GitHub App to make API requests on behalf of a user, the user must authorize the app. When a user authorizes an app, they grant the app permission to act on their behalf, and they grant the account permissions that the app requested. If the app is installed on an organization account, each user within that organization must authorize the app in order for the app to act on their behalf.
To prompt users to authorize your app, you will lead them through the web application flow or device flow. For more information, see "Generieren eines Benutzerzugriffstokens für eine GitHub-App."
For more information about authorizing GitHub Apps, see "Autorisieren von GitHub-Apps."
Encourage your users to revoke OAuth App access
You should also encourage your users to revoke access for your old OAuth App. This will help you fully transition away from your OAuth App and will help keep your users' data secure. For more information, see "Reviewing your authorized OAuth applications."
Update any interfaces or documentation
You should update any user interface or documentation related to your app to reflect the change from an OAuth App to GitHub App.
6. Remove webhooks for your old OAuth App
When a user installs your GitHub App and grants access to a repository, you should remove any webhooks for your old OAuth App. If your new GitHub App and your old OAuth App respond to webhooks for the same event, the user may observe duplicate behavior.
To remove repository webhooks, you can listen for the
installation_repositories webhook with the
added action. When your GitHub App receives that event, you can use the REST API to delete the webhook on those repositories for your OAuth App. For more information, see "Webhook-Ereignisse und -Nutzlasten" and "Repositorywebhooks."
Similarly, to remove organization webhooks, you can listen for the
installation webhook with the
created action. When your GitHub App receives that event for an organization, you can use the REST API to delete the webhook on that organization and corresponding repositories for your OAuth App. For more information, see "Webhook-Ereignisse und -Nutzlasten," "Organisationswebhooks," and "Repositorywebhooks."
7. Delete your old OAuth App
Once your users have migrated to your new GitHub App, you should delete your old OAuth App. This will help avoid abuse of the OAuth App's credentials. This action will also revoke all of the OAuth App's remaining authorizations. For more information, see "Löschen einer OAuth-App." If your OAuth App is listed on GitHub Marketplace, you may need to contact GitHub-Support to remove your app from the marketplace first.