我们创建了一种开发自行业和 GitHub 最佳实践的分阶段 GitHub Advanced Security (GHAS) 部署方法。 您可以利用此方法与 GitHub 专业服务 合作或独立部署。
虽然建议采用分阶段方法，但可以根据组织的需求进行调整。 我们还建议创建并遵守部署和实施的时间表。 当您开始规划时，我们可以一起确定最适合贵组织的理想方法和时间表。
根据我们帮助客户成功部署 GHAS 的经验，我们预计大多数客户都希望在我们建议的阶段中跟进其部署。
For a high-level summary of these different phases, see "Overview of GitHub Advanced Security Deployment."
Before starting your deployment, we recommend you review the prerequisites for installing GHAS and best practices for GHAS deployment in "Overview of GitHub Advanced Security Deployment."
Estimated timing: We estimate that phase 0 may last roughly between 1-4 weeks. This range can vary depending on your release needs and any necessary approvals your company may need on the deployment plan.
The goal of the planning and kickoff phase is to ensure that you have all of your people, processes, and technologies set up and ready for implementing GHAS.
To help you reach buy-in from the executive sponsor, we recommend preparing and aligning on a rollout plan and goals before releasing GHAS in your enterprise.
As a part of a phased rollout strategy, we recommend that you identify high-impact and critical teams or applications that should be targeted to join GHAS before the rest of your enterprise.
If a phased rollout doesn't work for your enterprise, you can skip to the pilot project phase.
If you’re working with GitHub 专业服务, during this phase you will also establish a plan for how your teams will work together throughout the rollout and implementation process. The 专业服务 team can support you with the creation of the phased rollout plan and goals as needed.
If you signed up for GitHub 专业服务, you’ll begin the rollout and implementation process by meeting with your Services representative.
If you haven't signed up for GitHub 专业服务, you can skip to the next step.
The goal of this meeting is to align the two teams on the necessary information to begin crafting a rollout and implementation plan that will work best for your company. In preparation for this meeting, we have created a survey that will help us better prepare for the discussion. Your Services representative will send you this survey.
To help you prepare for this initial meeting, review these topics.
- Aligning on how your company and GitHub 专业服务 will work best together
- Setting expectations on how to best utilize service hours/days purchased
- Communications plans/frequency of meetings
- Roles and responsibilities
- Review of how GHAS works within the Software Development Life cycle (SDLC). Your GitHub 专业服务 representative will explain how GHAS works.
- Review of best practices for deploying GHAS. This is offered as a refresher if your team finds it valuable or if your enterprise did not participate in the Proof of Concept (POC) exercise. This review includes a discussion of your existing Application Security program and its level of maturity, against something like the DevSecOps maturity model.
- Alignment on next steps for your GHAS deployment. Your GitHub 专业服务 representative will outline your next steps and the support you can expect from your partnership.
To help you plan your rollout strategy, you can also expect to discuss these questions:
- How many teams will be enabled?
- What is the anatomy of the teams’ repositories? (Tech stack, current tooling, etc.)
- Some of this might have already been covered during the Proof of Concept exercise if your company participated. If not, this is a crucial time to discuss this.
- What level of adoption do we expect to be organic, assisted, or inorganic?
- What does assisted adoption look like from a resourcing and documentation perspective?
- How will you manage inorganic adoption down the line? (For example, using policy enforcement or centrally managed workflows.)
Whether or not your company chooses to work with GitHub 专业服务, we always recommend you hold your own kickoff meeting to align your own team(s).
During this kickoff meeting, it's important to ensure there is a clear understanding of goals, expectations, and that a plan is in place for how to move forward with your rollout and implementation.
In addition, this is a good time to begin thinking about training and preparations for your team to ensure they have the right tools and expertise to support the rollout and implementation of GHAS.
We recommend you cover these topics in your internal kickoff meeting at your company if you haven't already covered these with the same group in your kickoff meeting with GitHub 专业服务.
- What are your business success metrics, how do you plan to measure and report on those measures?
- If these have not been defined, please define them. If they have been defined, communicate them and talk about how you plan to provide data-driven progress updates.
- Review of how GHAS works within the SDLC (Software Development Life cycle) and how this is expected to work for your company.
- Review of best practices if your company did not participate in the Proof of Concept exercise (or a refresher if your team finds value in this review)
- How does this compare/contrast with your existing Application Security Program?
- Discuss and agree how your internal team will work best together throughout rollout and
- Align on your communications plans and frequency of meetings for your internal team
- Review tasks for rollout and implementation completion, defining roles and responsibilities. We have outlined the majority of the tasks in this article, but there may be additional tasks your company requires we have not included.
- Consider establishing a “Champions Program” for scaled enablement
- Begin discussing timing for the completion of tasks
- Begin working on ideal rollout approaches that will work best for your company. This will include understanding a few important items:
- How many teams will be enabled? Some of this might have already been covered during the POC (Proof of Concept) exercise if your company participated. If not, this is a crucial time to discuss this.
- Of the critical applications identified for the initial rollout, how many are built on a technology supported by GHAS?
- How much organizational preparation is needed? To learn more, see "Phase 2."
Before you can move forward with pilot project(s) for the first phase of the rollout, it’s crucial to ensure a rollout plan and business goals have been established for how your company plans to proceed.
If you’re working with GitHub 专业服务, they can play a significant role in the creation of this plan.
If you’re working independently, this section outlines some things to ensure are included in your plan as you prepare to move forward.
Plans for process changes (if needed) and training for team members as needed:
- Documented team assignments for roles and responsibilities. For more information on the permissions required for each feature, see "Repository roles for an organization."
- Documented plan of tasks and timelines/timeframes where possible. This should include infrastructure changes, process changes/training, and all subsequent phases of enablement of GHAS, allowing for timeframes for remediations and configuration adjustments as needed. For more information, see "Phase 1: Pilot projects(s)" below.
- Prioritized plan for which projects/teams will have GHAS enabled first, and subsequent plans for which projects/teams will come in following phases
- Success metrics based on business goals. This will be a crucial reference point following the Pilot Project(s) to gain buy-in for the full rollout.
Note: To ensure awareness, buy-in, and adoption comes from all groups in your company, it's important to set realistic expectations around the rollout timing and impact on your company's infrastructure, processes, and general day-to-day development workflows. For a smoother and more successful rollout, ensure your security and development teams understand the impact of GHAS.
For GitHub Enterprise Server customers, to help ensure your instance can support the rollout and implementation of GHAS, review the following:
While upgrading to GHES 3.0 is not required, you must upgrade to GHES 3.0 or higher to take advantage of feature combinations such as code scanning and GitHub Actions. For more information, see "Upgrading GitHub Enterprise Server."
In a high availability configuration, a fully redundant secondary GitHub Enterprise Server appliance is kept in sync with the primary appliance through replication of all major datastores. For more information on setting up high availability, see "Configuring High Availability."
To help support any discussions regarding potential changes to your company's set up, you can review the GitHub Enterprise Server system overview. For more information, see "System overview."
As your company prepares to begin your pilot project(s), it’s crucial to ensure that you have set a baseline for where your enterprise is today and have defined clear success metrics to measure your pilot project(s) progress against.
There are likely key business goals your company has that will need to be measured against, but there are other metrics we can identify to help gauge your pilot’s success.
As a starting point, some of these metrics might include:
- The mean time to remediation for GHAS vulnerabilities versus the previous tooling and practices the pilot project(s) / team(s) utilized.
- The code scanning integration's findings for the top X most critical applications.
- The number of applications that have SAST (Static application security testing) integrated versus before the engagement.
If you participated in the POC exercise prior to purchasing GHAS, these objectives might look familiar. This success criteria includes several objectives for the following high-level roles:
- Implementation & Administration teams
- Security / CISO (Chief Information Security Officer)
- Application Development Teams
If you’d like to take things a step further, you can look at utilizing OWASP’s DevSecOps Maturity Model (DSOMM) to work towards reaching a Level 1 maturity. There are four main evaluation criteria in DSOMM:
- Static depth: How comprehensive is the static code scan that you’re performing within the AppSec CI pipeline
- Dynamic depth: How comprehensive is the dynamic scan that is being run within the AppSec CI pipeline
- Intensity: Your schedule frequency for the security scans running in AppSec CI pipeline
- Consolidation: Your remediation workflow for handling findings and process completeness
To learn more about this approach and how to implement it in GHAS, you can download our white paper "Achieving DevSecOps Maturity with GitHub."
Based on your wider company’s goals and current levels of DevSecOps maturity, we can help you determine how to best measure your pilot’s progress and success.
Estimated timing: We estimate that phase 1 may last roughly between 2 weeks to 3+ months. This range can vary largely depending on your company’s infrastructure or systems complexity, internal processes to manage/approve these changes, as well as if larger organizational process changes are needed to move forward with GHAS.
To begin enabling GHAS across your company, we recommend beginning with a few high-impact projects or teams to pilot an initial rollout. This will allow an initial group within your company to get familiar with GHAS and build a solid foundation on GHAS before rolling out to the remainder of your company.
Before you start your pilot project(s), we recommend that you schedule some checkpoint meetings for your team(s), such as an initial meeting, midpoint review, and a wrap-up session when the pilot is complete. These checkpoint meetings will help you all make adjustments as needed and ensure your team(s) are prepared and supported to complete the pilot successfully.
These steps will help you enable GHAS on your enterprise, begin using its features, and review your results.
If you’re working with GitHub 专业服务, they can provide additional assistance through this process through onboarding sessions, GHAS workshops, and troubleshooting as needed.
If you haven't already enabled GHAS for your GitHub Enterprise Server instance, see "Enabling GitHub Advanced Security for your enterprise."
You need to enable GHAS for each pilot project, either by enabling the GHAS feature for each repository or for all repositories in any organizations taking part in the project. For more information, see "Managing security and analysis settings for your repository" or "Managing security and analysis settings for your organization"
The vast majority of GHAS set-up and installation is centered around enabling and configuring code scanning on your enterprise and in your repositories.
Code scanning allows you to analyze code in a GitHub repository to find security vulnerabilities and coding errors. Code scanning can be used to find, triage, and prioritize fixes for existing problems in your code, as well as help prevent developers from introducing new problems that may otherwise reach production. For more information, see "About code scanning."
To enable 代码扫描 on your GitHub Enterprise Server instance, see "Configuring code scanning for your appliance."
To set up code scanning with GitHub Actions for GitHub Enterprise Server, you'll need to provision one or more self-hosted GitHub Actions runners in your environment. For more information, see "Setting up a self-hosted runner."
For GitHub Enterprise Cloud, you can start to create a GitHub Actions workflow using the CodeQL action to run code scanning on a repository. 代码扫描 uses GitHub-hosted runners by default, but this can be customized if you plan to host your own runner with your own hardware specifications. For more information, see "About self-hosted runners."
For more information about GitHub Actions, see:
- "Learn GitHub Actions"
- "Understanding GitHub Actions"
- "Events that trigger workflows"
- "Filter Pattern Cheat Sheet"
If you’re not using GitHub Actions and have your own continuous integration system, you can use the CodeQL CLI to perform CodeQL code scanning in a third-party CI system.
For more information, see:
If you’re using a phased approach to roll out GHAS, we recommend enabling 代码扫描 on a repository-by-repository basis as part of your rollout plan. For more information, see "Setting up code scanning for a repository."
If you’re not planning on a phased rollout approach and want to enable code scanning for many repositories, you may want to script the process.
For an example of a script that opens pull requests to add a GitHub Actions workflow to multiple repositories, see the
jhutchings1/Create-ActionsPRs repository for an example using PowerShell, or
nickliffen/ghas-enablement for teams who do not have PowerShell and instead would like to use NodeJS.
With code scanning enabled in the necessary repositories, you're ready to help your development team(s) understand how to run code scans and reports, view reports, and process results.
With code scanning, you can find vulnerabilities and errors in your project's code on GitHub, as well as view, triage, understand, and resolve the related 代码扫描 alerts.
When code scanning identifies a problem in a pull request, you can review the highlighted code and resolve the alert. For more information, see "Triaging 代码扫描 alerts in pull requests."
If you have write permission to a repository you can manage code scanning alerts for that repository. With write permission to a repository, you can view, fix, dismiss, or delete alerts for potential vulnerabilities or errors in your repository's code. For more information, see "Managing code scanning alerts for your repository."
If you’d like to create a report of your code scanning alerts, you can use the 代码扫描 API. For more information, see the "代码扫描 API."
For an example of how to use the 代码扫描 API, see the
When running initial code scans, you may find that no results are found or that an unusual number of results are returned. You may want to adjust what is flagged in future scans.
For more information, see "Configuring code scanning."
If your company wants to use other third-party code analysis tools with GitHub code scanning, you can use actions to run those tools within GitHub. Alternatively, you can upload results, generated by third-party tools as SARIF files, to code scanning. For more information, see "Integrating with code scanning."
GitHub scans repositories for known types of secrets, to prevent fraudulent use of secrets that were committed accidentally.
To enable secret scanning for your GitHub Enterprise Server instance, see "Configuring secret scanning for your appliance."
You need to enable secret scanning for each pilot project, either by enabling the feature for each repository or for all repositories in any organizations taking part in the project. For more information, see "Managing security and analysis settings for your repository" or "Managing security and analysis settings for your organization"
To learn how to view and close alerts for secrets checked into your repository, see "Managing alerts from secret scanning."
GitHub helps you avoid using third-party software that contains known vulnerabilities. We provide the following tools for updating vulnerable dependencies.
|Dependency Management Tool||Description|
|Dependabot Alerts||You can track your repository's dependencies and receive Dependabot alerts when your enterprise detects insecure dependencies. For more information, see "About Dependabot 警报."|
|Dependency Graph||The dependency graph is a summary of the manifest and lock files stored in a repository. It shows you the ecosystems and packages your codebase depends on (its dependencies) and the repositories and packages that depend on your project (its dependents). For more information, see "About the dependency graph."|
|Dependency Review||If a pull request contains changes to dependencies, you can view a summary of what has changed and whether there are known vulnerabilities in any of the dependencies. For more information, see "About dependency review" or "Reviewing Dependency Changes in a Pull Request."|
Once your team(s) have been able to run scans, identify vulnerabilities and dependencies, and can consume the results of each security feature, the next step is to ensure that they can remediate the vulnerabilities identified within their normal development processes without involving your security team.
This means that the development teams understand how to utilize the GHAS features throughout the development process, can run scans, read reports, consume the results, and remediate vulnerabilities within their normal development workflows, without having to have a separate security phase at the end of development, or have a need to involve your security team to understand reports/results.
Custom analysis is an optional deeper use of code scanning when custom CodeQL queries are needed beyond the available default (and community) set of queries. The need for custom queries is rare.
Custom queries are used to identify custom security alerts or help developers follow coding standards by detecting certain code patterns.
If your company is interested in writing custom CodeQL queries, there are certain requirements your company should meet.
If your team can provide some examples of existing vulnerabilities you'd like to find via CodeQL, please let the GitHub team know and we can schedule an introductory session to review the basics of the language and discuss how to tackle one of your problems. If you want to cover CodeQL in more depth, then we offer additional engagement options to cover more topics to enable your team to build their own queries.
All throughout the pilot phase, it’s essential to create and maintain high-quality internal documentation of the infrastructure and process changes made within your company, as well as learnings from the pilot process and configuration changes made as your team(s) progress throughout the rollout and implementation process.
Having thorough and complete documentation helps make the remaining phases of your rollout more of a repeatable process. Good documentation also ensures that new teams can be onboarded consistently throughout the rollout process and as new team members join your team(s).
Good documentation doesn’t end when rollout and implementation are complete. The most helpful documentation is actively updated and evolves as your teams expand their experience using GHAS and as their needs grow.
In addition to your documentation, we recommend your company provides clear channels to your team(s) for support and guidance all throughout rollout, implementation, and beyond. Depending on the level of change your company needs to take on in order to support the rollout and implementation of GHAS, having well-supported teams will help ensure a successful adoption into your development teams’ daily workflow.
Estimated timing: We estimate that phase 2 may last roughly between 1 week to over a month. This range can vary largely depending on your company’s internal approval processes.
One of the main goals of this phase is to ensure you have the organizational buy-in to make the full deployment of GHAS successful.
During this phase, your company reviews the results of the pilot project(s) to determine if the pilot was successful, what adjustments may need to be made, and if the company is ready to continue forward with the rollout.
Depending on your company’s approval process, organizational buy-in from your executive sponsor may be necessary to continue forward. In most cases, organizational buy-in from your team(s) is necessary to begin utilizing the value of GHAS for your company.
Before moving forward to the next phase of rolling out GHAS more widely across your company, modifications are often made to the original rollout plan based on learnings from the pilot.
Any changes that may impact the documentation should also be made to ensure it is current for continued rollout.
We also recommend that you consider your plan to train any teams or team members that will be introduced to GHAS in the next phases of your rollout if you haven't already.
At the completion of Phase 1, your team(s) should have GHAS enabled on your GitHub Enterprise Server instance and have been able to utilize all of the key features of GHAS successfully, potentially with some configuration changes to optimize results. If your company clearly defined success metrics in Phase 0, you should be able to measure against these metrics to determine the success of your pilot.
It’s important to revisit your baseline metrics when preparing your results to ensure that incremental progress can be demonstrated based on metrics collected from the pilot against your original business goals. If you need assistance with this information, GitHub can help by ensuring that your company has the right metrics to measure your progress against. For more information on help available, see "GitHub services and support."
Organizational buy-in will vary depending on a variety of factors, including your company’s size, approval process, or even the level of change required to rollout GHAS to name a few.
For some companies, securing buy-in is a one-time meeting, but for others, this process can take quite some time (potentially weeks or months). Buy-in may require approval from your executive sponsor or may require the adoption of GHAS into your teams’ daily workflows.
This duration of this stage is entirely up to your company and how quickly you would like to proceed. We recommend seeking support or services from GitHub where possible to help answer questions and provide any recommendations that may be needed to help support this process. For more information on help available, see "GitHub services and support."
Review the results and findings from your pilot project(s) and the needs of the remaining teams at your company. Based on your findings and needs analysis, update/revise your documentation.
We've found that it’s essential to ensure that your documentation is up-to-date before continuing with the rollout to the remainder of your company's enterprise.
Based on what you learned from your pilot project(s), update the rollout plan you designed in stage 0. To prepare for rolling out to your company, consider any training your teams will need, such as training on using GHAS, process changes, or migration training if your enterprise is migrating to GitHub.
Estimated timing: We estimate that phase 3 may last anywhere from 2 weeks to multiple months. This range can vary largely depending on your company’s size, number of repositories/teams, level of change the GHAS rollout will be for your company, etc.
Once your company has aligned on the results and findings from your pilot project(s) and all rollout preparation steps have been completed from Phase 2, you can move forward with the full rollout to your company based on your plan.
If you're using a phased approach to rolling out GHAS, we recommend taking a brief pause and completing a short evaluation after rolling out GHAS to a different segment of your company to ensure the rollout is moving forward smoothly. Your evaluation can ensure that teams are enabled and trained properly, that any unique GHAS configuration needs are met, and that plans and documentation can be adjusted as needed.
When rolling GHAS out to any teams beyond your pilot project team(s), it’s important to ensure teams are either trained or there are training resources available to provide additional support where needed.
These are the main areas where we see companies needing further support:
- training on GHAS
- training for customers new to GitHub
- training on how to migrate to GitHub
Our 专业服务 team provides a variety of training services, bootcamps, and just general advice to help support your team(s) throughout the rollout and implementation process. For more information, see "GitHub services and support."
To help support your teams, here's a recap of relevant GitHub documentation.
For documentation on how to enable GHAS, see:
- "Enabling Advanced Security features"
- "Managing security and analysis settings for your organization"
- "Managing security and analysis settings for your repository"
For documentation on how to migrate to GitHub, see:
For documentation on getting started with GitHub, see:
In step 4 of phase 2, we recommended that you update the initial rollout plan based on your learnings from the pilot project(s). Ensure that you continue to update your plan as you implement any necessary organizational changes to successfully roll out GHAS to your company.
Successful GHAS rollouts and the adoption of best practices into daily workflows depend on ensuring that your teams understand why it’s necessary to include security in their work.
Configuration and customization of GHAS are not complete once it’s rolled out across your company's enterprise. Further custom configuration changes should continue to be made over time to ensure GHAS continues to support your company's changing needs.
As your team becomes more experienced and skilled with GHAS over time, this will create additional opportunities for further customization.