Executores auto-hospedados oferecem mais controle de hardware, sistema operacional e ferramentas de software do que os executores hospedados pelo GitHub. Com executores auto-hospedados, você pode optar por criar uma configuração de hardware personalizado com mais poder de processamento ou memória para executar trabalhos maiores, software de instalação disponível na sua rede local e escolher um sistema operacional não oferecido por executores hospedados do GitHub. Self-hosted runners can be physical, virtual, in a container, on-premises, or in a cloud.
You can add self-hosted runners at various levels in the management hierarchy:
- Repository-level runners are dedicated to a single repository.
- Organization-level runners can process jobs for multiple repositories in an organization.
- Enterprise-level runners can be assigned to multiple organizations in an enterprise account.
Your runner machine connects to GitHub using the GitHub Actions self-hosted runner application. O aplicativo de executor do GitHub Actions tem código aberto. Você pode contribuir e arquivar problemas no repositório runner. When a new version is released, the runner application automatically updates itself when a job is assigned to the runner, or within a week of release if the runner hasn't been assigned any jobs.
Um executor auto-hospedado é automaticamente removido de GitHub se não se conectar a GitHub Actions por mais de 30 dias.
GitHub-hosted runners offer a quicker, simpler way to run your workflows, while self-hosted runners are a highly configurable way to run workflows in your own custom environment.
- Receive automatic updates for the operating system, preinstalled packages and tools, and the self-hosted runner application.
- Are managed and maintained by GitHub.
- Provide a clean instance for every job execution.
- Use free minutes on your GitHub plan, with per-minute rates applied after surpassing the free minutes.
- Receive automatic updates for the self-hosted runner application only. You are responsible for updating the operating system and all other software.
- Can use cloud services or local machines that you already pay for.
- Are customizable to your hardware, operating system, software, and security requirements.
- Don't need to have a clean instance for every job execution.
- Are free to use with GitHub Actions, but you are responsible for the cost of maintaining your runner machines.
You can use any machine as a self-hosted runner as long at it meets these requirements:
- You can install and run the self-hosted runner application on the machine. For more information, see "Supported architectures and operating systems for self-hosted runners."
- The machine can communicate with GitHub Actions. For more information, see "Communication between self-hosted runners and GitHub."
- The machine has enough hardware resources for the type of workflows you plan to run. The self-hosted runner application itself only requires minimal resources.
- If you want to run workflows that use Docker container actions or service containers, you must use a Linux machine and Docker must be installed.
You can automatically increase or decrease the number of self-hosted runners in your environment in response to the webhook events you receive. For more information, see "Autoscaling with self-hosted runners."
There are some limits on GitHub Actions usage when using self-hosted runners. These limits are subject to change.
- Tempo de execução do fluxo de trabalho - Cada execução do fluxo de trabalho é limitada a 72 horas. Se a execução de um fluxo de trabalho atingir esse limite, a execução do fluxo de trabalho será cancelada.
- Job queue time - Each job for self-hosted runners can be queued for a maximum of 24 hours. If a self-hosted runner does not start executing the job within this limit, the job is terminated and fails to complete.
- Solicitações de API - Você pode executar até 1000 solicitações de API por hora em todas as ações dentro de um repositório. Se excedido, as chamadas de API adicionais falharão, o que pode causar falha nas tarefas.
- Job matrix - Uma matriz de tarefas pode gerar 256 tarefas no máximo por execução do fluxo de trabalho. Este limite também se aplica a executores auto-hospedados.
- Fila de execução do fluxo de trabalho - Apenas 500 execuções do fluxo de trabalho podem ser enfileiradas em um segundo intervalo de 10 segundos por repositório. Se a execução de um fluxo de trabalho atingir esse limite, a execução do fluxo de trabalho terminará e falhará em ser concluída.
Se os serviços de GitHub Actions estiverem temporariamente indisponíveis, a execução do fluxo de trabalho será descartada se não tiver sido enfileirada em 30 minutos após ser acionada. Por exemplo, se um fluxo de trabalho for acionado e os serviços de GitHub Actions não estiverem disponíveis por 31 minutos ou mais, a execução do fluxo de trabalho não será processada.
The following operating systems are supported for the self-hosted runner application.
- Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 or later
- CentOS 7 or later
- Oracle Linux 7
- Fedora 29 or later
- Debian 9 or later
- Ubuntu 16.04 or later
- Linux Mint 18 or later
- openSUSE 15 or later
- SUSE Enterprise Linux (SLES) 12 SP2 or later
- Windows 7 64-bit
- Windows 8.1 64-bit
- Windows 10 64-bit
- Windows Server 2012 R2 64-bit
- Windows Server 2016 64-bit
- Windows Server 2019 64-bit
- macOS 10.13 (High Sierra) or later
The following processor architectures are supported for the self-hosted runner application.
x64- Linux, macOS, Windows.
ARM64- Linux only.
ARM32- Linux only.
The self-hosted runner polls GitHub to retrieve application updates and to check if any jobs are queued for processing. The self-hosted runner uses a HTTPS long poll that opens a connection to GitHub for 50 seconds, and if no response is received, it then times out and creates a new long poll. The application must be running on the machine to accept and run GitHub Actions jobs.
Since the self-hosted runner opens a connection to GitHub, you do not need to allow GitHub to make inbound connections to your self-hosted runner.
You must ensure that the machine has the appropriate network access to communicate with the GitHub hosts listed below. Some hosts are required for essential runner operations, while other hosts are only required for certain functionality.
Note: Some of the domains listed below are configured using
CNAME records. Some firewalls might require you to add rules recursively for all
CNAME records. Note that the
CNAME records might change in the future, and that only the domains listed below will remain constant.
Needed for essential operations:
Needed for downloading actions:
Needed for runner version updates:
objects.githubusercontent.com objects-origin.githubusercontent.com github-releases.githubusercontent.com github-registry-files.githubusercontent.com
Needed for uploading/downloading caches and workflow artifacts:
Needed for retrieving OIDC tokens:
In addition, your workflow may require access to other network resources. For example, if your workflow installs packages or publishes containers to GitHub Packages, then the runner will also require access to those network endpoints.
If you use an IP address allow list for your GitHub organization or enterprise account, you must add your self-hosted runner's IP address to the allow list. For more information, see "Managing allowed IP addresses for your organization" or "Enforcing policies for security settings in your enterprise".
You can also use self-hosted runners with a proxy server. For more information, see "Using a proxy server with self-hosted runners."
Recomendamos que você use apenas executores auto-hospedados com repositórios privados. Isso acontece porque as bifurcações do seu repositório podem potencialmente executar código perigoso na sua máquina de executor auto-hospedada criando um pull request que executa o código em um fluxo de trabalho.
This is not an issue with GitHub-hosted runners because each GitHub-hosted runner is always a clean isolated virtual machine, and it is destroyed at the end of the job execution.
Untrusted workflows running on your self-hosted runner pose significant security risks for your machine and network environment, especially if your machine persists its environment between jobs. Some of the risks include:
- Malicious programs running on the machine.
- Escaping the machine's runner sandbox.
- Exposing access to the machine's network environment.
- Persisting unwanted or dangerous data on the machine.
For more information about security hardening for self-hosted runners, see "Security hardening for GitHub Actions."